161 research outputs found

### Quark Model Calculations Of Symmetry Breaking in Parton Distributions

Using a quark model, we calculate symmetry breaking effects in the valence
quark distributions of the nucleon. In particular, we examine the breaking of
the quark model SU(4) symmetry by color magnetic effects, and find that color
magnetism provides an explanation for deviation of the ratio $d_V(x)/u_V(x)$
from $1/2$. Additionally, we calculate the effect of charge symmetry breaking
in the valence quark distributions of the proton and neutron and find, in
contrast to other authors, that the effect is too small to be seen
experimentally.Comment: 6 Pages, 3 postscript figures compressed using uufile

### Color Magnetic Corrections to Quark Model Valence Distributions

We calculate order $\alpha_s$ color magnetic corrections to the valence quark
distributions of the proton using the Los Alamos Model Potential wavefunctions.
The spin-spin interaction breaks the model SU(4) symmetry, providing a natural
mechanism for the difference between the up and down distributions. For a value
of $\alpha_s$ sufficient to produce the $N-\Delta$ mass splitting, we find up
and down quark distributions in reasonable agreement with experiment.Comment: 25 Pages, LA-UR-93-132

### Charge Symmetry Breaking in the Valence Quark Distributions of the Nucleon

Using a quark model, we study the effect of charge symmetry breaking on the
valence quark distributions of the nucleon. The effect due to quark mass
differences and the Coulomb interaction of the electrically charged quarks is
calculated and, in contrast to recent claims, found to be small. In addition,
we investigate the effect of charge symmetry breaking in the confining
interaction, and in the perturbative evolution equations used to relate the
quark model distributions to experiment. We find that both these effects are
small, and that the strong charge symmetry breaking effect included in the
scalar confining interactions may be distinguishable from that generated by
quark mass differences.Comment: 10 pages, LaTEX, 5 Postscript figure

### A Quantum-Mechanical Equivalent-Photon Spectrum for Heavy-Ion Physics

In a previous paper, we calculated the fully quantum-mechanical cross section
for electromagnetic excitation during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Here, we
examine the sensitivity of that cross section to the detailed structure of the
projectile and target nuclei. At the transition energies relevant to nuclear
physics, we find the cross section to be weakly dependent on the projectile
charge radius, and to be sensitive to only the leading momentum-transfer
dependence of the target transition form factors. We exploit these facts to
derive a quantum-mechanical ``equivalent-photon spectrum'' valid in the
long-wavelength limit. This improved spectrum includes the effects of
projectile size, the finite longitudinal momentum transfer required by
kinematics, and the response of the target nucleus to the off-shell photon.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figure

### Flavor and Charge Symmetry in the Parton Distributions of the Nucleon

Recent calculations of charge symmetry violation(CSV) in the valence quark
distributions of the nucleon have revealed that the dominant symmetry breaking
contribution comes from the mass associated with the spectator quark
system.Assuming that the change in the spectator mass can be treated
perturbatively, we derive a model independent expression for the shift in the
parton distributions of the nucleon. This result is used to derive a relation
between the charge and flavor asymmetric contributions to the valence quark
distributions in the proton, and to calculate CSV contributions to the nucleon
sea. The CSV contribution to the Gottfried sum rule is also estimated, and
found to be small

### Time-dependent embedding: surface electron emission

An embedding method for solving the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation is
developed using the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle. Embedding allows the
time-evolution of the wavefunction to be calculated explicitly in a limited
region of space, the region of physical interest, the embedding potential
ensuring that the wavefunction satisfies the correct boundary conditions for
matching on to the rest of the system. This is applied to a study of the
excitation of electrons at a metal surface, represented by a one-dimensional
model potential for Cu(111). Time-dependent embedding potentials are derived
for replacing the bulk substrate, and the image potential and vacuum region
outside the surface, so that the calculation of electron excitation by a
surface perturbation can be restricted to the surface itself. The excitation of
the Shockley surface state and a continuum bulk state is studied, and the
time-structure of the resulting currents analysed. Non-linear effects and the
time taken for the current to arrive outside the surface are discussed. The
method shows a clear distinction between emission from the localized surface
state, where the charge is steadily depleted, and the extended continuum state
where the current emitted into the vacuum is compensated by current approaching
the surface from the bulk.Comment: 15 figure

### Microscopic description of Coulomb and nuclear excitation of multiphonon states in $^{40}$Ca + $^{40}$Ca collisions

We calculate the inelastic scattering cross sections to populate one- and
two-phonon states in heavy ion collisions with both Coulomb and nuclear
excitations. Starting from a microscopic approach based on RPA, we go beyond it
in order to treat anharmonicities and non-linear terms in the exciting field.
These anharmonicities and non-linearities are shown to have important effects
on the cross sections both in the low energy part of the spectrum and in the
energy region of the Double Giant Quadrupole Resonance. By properly introducing
an optical potential the inelastic cross section is calculated semiclassically
by integrating the excitation probability over all impact parameters. A
satisfactory agreement with the experimental results is obtained.Comment: 20 pages, 2 figures, revtex, to be published in Phys. Rev.

### Homothetic Self-Similar Solutions of the Three-Dimensional Brans-Dicke Gravity

All homothetic self-similar solutions of the Brans-Dicke scalar field in
three-dimensional spacetime with circular symmetry are found in closed form.Comment: latex, five pages, without figur

### Valence Quark Distribution in A=3 Nuclei

We calculate the quark distribution function for 3He/3H in a relativistic
quark model of nuclear structure which adequately reproduces the nucleon
approximation, nuclear binding energies, and nuclear sizes for small nuclei.
The results show a clear distortion from the quark distribution function for
individual nucleons (EMC effect) arising dominantly from a combination of
recoil and quark tunneling effects. Antisymmetrization (Pauli) effects are
found to be small due to limited spatial overlaps. We compare our predictions
with a published parameterization of the nuclear valence quark distributions
and find significant agreement.Comment: 18pp., revtex4, 4 fig

- …