2,143 research outputs found

    Infall, outflow, and rotation in the G19.61-0.23 hot molecular core

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    Aims: The main goal of this study is to perform a sub-arcsecond resolution analysis of the high-mass star formation region G19.61-0.23, both in the continuum and molecular line emission. While the centimeter continuum images will be discussed in detail in a forthcoming paper, here we focus on the (sub)mm emission, devoting special attention to the hot molecular core. Results: Our observations resolve the HMC into three cores whose masses are on the order of 10^1-10^3 Msun. No submm core presents detectable free-free emission in the centimeter regime, but they appear to be associated with masers and thermal line emission from complex organic molecules. Towards the most massive core, SMA1, the CH3CN (18_K-17_K) lines reveal hints of rotation about the axis of a jet/outflow traced by H2O maser and H13CO+ (1--0) line emission. Inverse P-Cygni profiles of the 13CO (3--2) and C18O (3--2) lines seen towards SMA1 indicate that the central high-mass (proto)star(s) is (are) still gaining mass with an accretion rate ge3¬†10‚ąí3ge 3 ~10^{-3} Msun/yr. Due to the linear scales and the large values of the accretion rate, we hypothesize that we are observing an accretion flow towards a cluster in the making, rather than towards a single massive star.Comment: A&A accepted; 18 pages; Preprint with full-resolution figures is available at http://subarutelescope.org/staff/rsf/publication.htm

    Proper Motion of H2O Masers in IRAS 20050+2720 MMS1: An AU Scale Jet Associated with An Intermediate-Mass Class 0 Source

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    We conducted a 4 epoch 3 month VLBA proper motion study of H2_2O masers toward an intermediate-mass class 0 source IRAS 20050+2720 MMS1 (d=700 pc). From milli-arcsecond (mas) resolution VLBA images, we found two groups of H2O maser spots at the center of the submillimeter core of MMS1. One group consists of more than ‚ąľ50\sim 50 intense maser spots; the other group consisting of several weaker maser spots is located at 18 AU south-west of the intense group. Distribution of the maser spots in the intense group shows an arc-shaped structure which includes the maser spots that showed a clear velocity gradient. The spatial and velocity structures of the maser spots in the arc-shape did not significantly change through the 4 epochs. Furthermore, we found a relative proper motion between the two groups. Their projected separation increased by 1.13+/-0.11 mas over the 4 epochs along a line connecting them. The spatial and velocity structures of the intense group and the relative proper motions strongly suggest that the maser emission is associated with a protostellar jet. Comparing the observed LSR velocities with calculated radial velocities from a simple biconical jet model, we conclude that the most of the maser emission are likely to be associated with an accelerating biconical jet which has large opening angle. The large opening angle of the jet traced by the masers would support the hypothesis that poor jet collimation is an inherent property of luminous (proto)stars.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures, Fig.3 was downsized significantly. accepted for publication in A&

    High Resolution Observations of the Massive Protostar in IRAS18566+0408

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    We report 3 mm continuum, CH3CN(5-4) and 13CS(2-1) line observations with CARMA, in conjunction with 6 and 1.3 cm continuum VLA data, and 12 and 25 micron broadband data from the Subaru Telescope toward the massive proto-star IRAS18566+0408. The VLA data resolve the ionized jet into 4 components aligned in the E-W direction. Radio components A, C, and D have flat cm SEDs indicative of optically thin emission from ionized gas, and component B has a spectral index alpha = 1.0, and a decreasing size with frequency proportional to frequency to the -0.5 power. Emission from the CARMA 3 mm continuum, and from the 13CS(2-1), and CH3CN(5-4) spectral lines is compact (i.e. < 6700 AU), and peaks near the position of VLA cm source, component B. Analysis of these lines indicates hot, and dense molecular gas, typical for HMCs. Our Subaru telescope observations detect a single compact source, coincident with radio component B, demonstrating that most of the energy in IRAS18566+0408 originates from a region of size < 2400 AU. We also present UKIRT near-infrared archival data for IRAS18566+0408 which show extended K-band emission along the jet direction. We detect an E-W velocity shift of about 10 km/sec over the HMC in the CH3CN lines possibly tracing the interface of the ionized jet with the surrounding core gas. Our data demonstrate the presence of an ionized jet at the base of the molecular outflow, and support the hypothesis that massive protostars with O-type luminosity form with a mechanism similar to lower mass stars

    Non-Gaussian two-mode squeezing and continuous variable entanglement of linearly and circularly polarized light beams interacting with cold atoms

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    We investigate how entangled coherent states and superpositions of low intensity coherent states of non-Gaussian nature can be generated via non-resonant interaction between either two linearly or circularly polarized field modes and an ensemble of X-like four-level atoms placed in an optical cavity. We compare our results to recent experimental observations and argue that the non-Gaussian structure of the field states may be present in those systems.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures, replaced with final published versio

    Relative Evolutionary Time Scale of Hot Molecular Cores with Respect to Ultra Compact HII Regions

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    Using the Owens Valley and Nobeyama Radio Observatory interferometers, we carried out an unbiased search for hot molecular cores and ultracompact UC HII regions toward the high-mass star forming region G19.61--0.23. In addition, we performed 1.2 mm imaging with SIMBA, and retrieved 3.5 and 2 cm images from the VLA archive data base. The newly obtained 3 mm image brings information on a cluster of high-mass (proto)stars located in the innermost and densest part of the parsec scale clump detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. We identify a total of 10 high-mass young stellar objects: one hot core (HC) and 9 UC HII regions, whose physical parameters are obtained from model fits to their continuum spectra. The ratio between the current and expected final radii of the UC \HII regions ranges from 0.3 to 0.9, which leaves the possibility that all O-B stars formed simultaneously. Under the opposite assumption -- namely that star formation occurred randomly -- we estimate that HC lifetime is less than ‚ąľ\sim1/3 of that of UCHII regions on the basis of the source number ratio between them.Comment: 13 pages, 2 figs, including a color fi

    A study on subarcsecond scales of the ammonia and continuum emission toward the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region

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    We wish to investigate the structure, velocity field, and stellar content of the G16.59-0.05 high-mass star-forming region, where previous studies have established the presence of two almost perpendicular (NE-SW and SE-NW), massive outflows, and a rotating disk traced by methanol maser emission. We performed Very Large Array observations of the radio continuum and ammonia line emission, complemented by COMICS/Subaru and Hi-GAL/Herschel images in the mid- and far-infrared (IR). Our centimeter continuum maps reveal a collimated radio jet that is oriented E-W and centered on the methanol maser disk, placed at the SE border of a compact molecular core. The spectral index of the jet is negative, indicating non-thermal emission over most of the jet, except the peak close to the maser disk, where thermal free-free emission is observed. We find that the ammonia emission presents a bipolar structure consistent (on a smaller scale) in direction and velocity with that of the NE-SW bipolar outflow detected in previous CO observations. After analyzing our previous N2H+(1-0) observations again, we conclude that two scenarios are possible. In one case both the radio jet and the ammonia emission would trace the root of the large-scale CO bipolar outflow. The different orientation of the jet and the ammonia flow could be explained by precession and/or a non-isotropic density distribution around the star. In the other case, the N2H+(1-0) and ammonia bipolarity is interpreted as two overlapping clumps moving with different velocities along the line of sight. The ammonia gas also seems to undergo rotation consistent with the maser disk. Our IR images complemented by archival data allow us to derive a bolometric luminosity of about 10^4 L_sun and to conclude that most of the luminosity is due to the young stellar object associated with the maser disk.Comment: 11 pages, 12 figures, published in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    First results from a VLBA proper motion survey of H2O masers in low-mass YSOs: the Serpens core and RNO15-FIR

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    This article reports first results of a long-term observational program aimed to study the earliest evolution of jet/disk systems in low-mass YSOs by means of VLBI observations of the 22.2 GHz water masers. We report here data for the cluster of low-mass YSOs in the Serpens molecular core and for the single object RNO~15-FIR. Towards Serpens SMM1, the most luminous sub-mm source of the Serpens cluster, the water maser emission comes from two small (< 5 AU in size) clusters of features separated by ~25 AU, having line of sight velocities strongly red-shifted (by more than 10 km/s) with respect to the LSR velocity of the molecular cloud. The two maser clusters are oriented on the sky along a direction that is approximately perpendicular to the axis of the radio continuum jet observed with the VLA towards SMM1. The spatial and velocity distribution of the maser features lead us to favor the interpretation that the maser emission is excited by interaction of the receding lobe of the jet with dense gas in the accretion disk surrounding the YSO in SMM1. Towards RNO~15-FIR, the few detected maser features have both positions and (absolute) velocities aligned along a direction that is parallel to the axis of the molecular outflow observed on much larger angular scales. In this case the maser emission likely emerges from dense, shocked molecular clumps displaced along the axis of the jet emerging from the YSO. The protostar in Serpens SMM1 is more massive than the one in RNO~15-FIR. We discuss the case where a high mass ejection rate can generate jets sufficiently powerful to sweep away from their course the densest portions of circumstellar gas. In this case, the excitation conditions for water masers might preferably occur at the interface between the jet and the accretion disk, rather than along the jet axis.Comment: 18 pages (postscript format); 9 figures; to be published into Astronomy & Astrophysics, Main Journa

    Dressed-State Approach to Population Trapping in the Jaynes-Cummings Model

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    The phenomenon of atomic population trapping in the Jaynes-Cummings Model is analysed from a dressed-state point of view. A general condition for the occurrence of partial or total trapping from an arbitrary, pure initial atom-field state is obtained in the form of a bound to the variation of the atomic inversion. More generally, it is found that in the presence of initial atomic or atom-field coherence the population dynamics is governed not by the field's initial photon distribution, but by a `weighted dressedness' distribution characterising the joint atom-field state. In particular, individual revivals in the inversion can be analytically described to good approximation in terms of that distribution, even in the limit of large population trapping. This result is obtained through a generalisation of the Poisson Summation Formula method for analytical description of revivals developed by Fleischhauer and Schleich [Phys. Rev. A {\bf 47}, 4258 (1993)].Comment: 24 pages, 5 figures, to appear in J. Mod. Op

    The impact of the Herbig Haro object HH2 on local dust and gas

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    We present results from a study of molecular gas and dust in the vicinity of the Herbig Haro object HH2. Emission from the sub-mm continuum, 12CO and HCO+ was mapped with angular resolutions ranging from 14 arcsec to 5 arcsec (or 0.01pc at the distance of HH2). The continuum shows an extended dust clump of mass 3.8Msun and temperature 22K, located downstream of the bright optical HH knots. However, a compact emission peak lies within ~0.01pc of the low-excitation H2-prominent shocks, with a luminosity consistent with local heating by the outflow. The HCO+ emission shows two velocity components: firstly, ambient-velocity gas lying in a region roughly corresponding to the dust clump, with abundance enhanced by a factor of a few close to the H2-prominent knots. Secondly a component of high-velocity emission (20 km/s linewidth), found mainly in a collimated jet linking the low-excitation HH objects. In this high-velocity jet, the line wings show an abundance ratio HCO+/CO proportional to v^2, with an HCO+ enhancement compared with ambient gas of up to 10^3 at the most extreme velocities. Such high abundances are consistent with models of shock chemistry in turbulent mixing layers at the interaction boundaries of jets. Extrapolating this effect to low velocities suggests that the more modest HCO+ enhancement in the clump gas could be caused by low velocity shocks. A UV precursor may not, therefore be necessary to explain the elevated HCO+ abundance in this gas.Comment: 8 pages. 9 figures. To be published in MNRA

    Candidate Rotating Toroids around High-Mass (Proto)Stars

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    Using the OVRO, Nobeyama, and IRAM mm-arrays, we searched for ``disk''-outflow systems in three high-mass (proto)star forming regions: G16.59-0.05, G23.01-0.41, and G28.87+0.07. These were selected from a sample of NH3 cores associated with OH and H2O maser emission and with no or very faint continuum emission. Our imaging of molecular line (including rotational transitions of CH3CN and 3mm dust continuum emission revealed that these are compact, massive, and hot molecular cores (HMCs), that is likely sites of high-mass star formation prior to the appearance of UCHII regions. All three sources turn out to be associated with molecular outflows from CO and/or HCO+ J=1--0 line imaging. In addition, velocity gradients of 10 -- 100 km/s per pc in the innermost densest regions of the G23.01 and G28.87 HMCs are identified along directions roughly perpendicular to the axes of the corresponding outflows. All the results suggest that these cores might be rotating about the outflow axis, although the contribution of rotation to gravitational equilibrium of the HMCs appears to be negligible. Our analysis indicates that the 3 HMCs are close to virial equilibrium due to turbulent pressure support. Comparison with other similar objects where rotating toroids have been identified so far shows that in our case rotation appears to be much less prominent; this can be explained by the combined effect of unfavorable projection, large distance, and limited angular resolution with the current interferometers.Comment: Accepted by ApJ main journal, the paper with the original quality figures are available from http://subarutelescope.org/staff/rsf/publication.htm
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