7 research outputs found

    Study of volatile metabolites of phytopathogens inhibitors fungi on plants by HS-SPME e GCxGC-QMS

    No full text
    Orientador: Fabio AugustoDisserta√ß√£o (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Qu√≠micaResumo: No cen√°rio da agricultura, observou-se que v√°rias culturas comercialmente importantes s√£o acometidas por doen√ßas causadas por microrganismos pat√≥genos como a ferrugem em eucalipto, causada pelo fungo Puccinia psidii, ou o mofo branco em soja, causado pelo microrganismo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Assim, diversos estudos v√™m explorando o uso de agentes de controle biol√≥gico (biocontrole) como uma alternativa aos fungicidas comerciais. Para explorar de forma representativa o metabolismo desses agentes de biocontrole s√£o necess√°rias t√©cnicas anal√≠ticas de extra√ß√£o, separa√ß√£o e detec√ß√£o compat√≠veis com a magnitude de concentra√ß√Ķes e diversidade de compostos produzidos. Neste trabalho, para obter de forma in√©dita a fra√ß√£o vol√°til e semi-vol√°til do metabolismo secund√°rio do fungo do g√™nero Myrothecium, respons√°vel por combater o mofo branco em soja, utilizaram-se as t√©cnicas de Microextra√ß√£o em Fase S√≥lida no modo headspace (HS-SPME) aliada √† t√©cnica de Cromatografia Gasosa Bidimensional Abrangente acoplada √† Espectrometria de Massas Quadrupolar (GC√óGC-qMS). O uso da ferramenta quimiom√©trica MPCA (An√°lise de Componentes Principais Multi-modo) foi poss√≠vel avaliar a cin√©tica de produ√ß√£o de vol√°teis em fun√ß√£o do tempo, identificando o dia de mais diversidade metab√≥lica do fungo. Com essa informa√ß√£o em m√£os, foram identificados tentativamente compostos qu√≠mico dos quais se destacam o Feniletil√°lcool, a-Curcumeno, a-Terpineno, Diepi-a-Cedreno, Cis-a-Bisaboleno, a-Farneseno e √ü-Elemeno. Estes possuem conhecida a√ß√£o de controle de pat√≥genos, podendo ser estudados a fim direcionar os estudos em rela√ß√£o a biofungicidas e indu√ß√£o de resist√™ncia em plantasAbstract: In agriculture scenario, there are several commercially important crops that are affected by diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms like the rust in eucalyptus caused by Puccinia psidii fungus or white mold on soybeans, caused by the microorganism Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Thus, there are several studies exploring the use of biological control (Biocontrol) agents as an alternative to commercial fungicides. In order to representatively explore the metabolism of these biocontrol agents analytical techniques for extraction, separation and detection are required and should be compatible with concentration magnitude and diversity of the produced compounds. In this work, in order to get a volatile and semi-volatile fraction of fungal secondary metabolism in an unprecedented way of Myrothecium species, responsible for combating white mold in soybeans, were used Solid Phase Microextraction technique in headspace mode (HS-SPME) coupled with the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography technique coupled to mass spectrometry quadrupole (GC√óGC-QMS). The use of the chemometric tool MPCA (Principal Component Analysis Multi-Mode) made possible to evaluate the kinetics of volatile production as a time function, identifying the day of major metabolic fungus diversity. With this information in hands, the chemical compounds were tentatively identified among which are the phenilethyl alcohol, a-curcumene, a-terpinene, Diepi-a-cedrene, cis-a-bisabolene, a-farnesene and √ü-elemene. These compounds have known pathogens control activity and can be guide and direct the biofungicides and plant resistence induction studiesMestradoQuimica AnaliticaMestra em Qu√≠micaCAPE

    Solarização em microcosmo: efeito de materiais vegetais na sobrevivência de fitopatógenos de solo e na produção de voláteis

    No full text
    Al√©m das brassicaceas associadas √† solariza√ß√£o do solo, novos materiais vegetais como a mandioca e a mamona t√™m apresentado potencial no controle de fitopat√≥genos de solo. Assim, objetivou-se verificar os efeitos da incorpora√ß√£o e decomposi√ß√£o de parte a√©rea de br√≥colis, mamona e mandioca brava e mansa, associadas √† solariza√ß√£o, em conjuntos de microcosmos, sob condi√ß√Ķes de ambiente controlado, na sobreviv√™ncia das estruturas de resist√™ncia de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Ra√ßa 2, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HGI e Sclerotium rolfsii; e identificar e apontar o(s) vol√°til(eis) emanado(s) pela decomposi√ß√£o dos materiais, que poderia(m) estar correlacionado(s) com a inativa√ß√£o dos fitopat√≥genos. Quanto √† sobreviv√™ncia dos pat√≥genos, quatro ensaios id√™nticos foram instalados nos microcosmos, com quatro per√≠odos de exposi√ß√£o independentes (7, 14, 21 e 28 dias). A identifica√ß√£o dos vol√°teis contou com ensaios realizados sob as mesmas condi√ß√Ķes da sobreviv√™ncia, mas em frascos √Ęmbar e com cromatografia gasosa com detectores por espectrometria de massas (GC-MS) e por ioniza√ß√£o em chama (GC-FID), utilizando a t√©cnica de Microextra√ß√£o em Fase S√≥lida - SPME. Os tratamentos solo+materiais vegetais, ao longo dos per√≠odos testados, reduziram a sobreviv√™ncia das estruturas de resist√™ncia de todos os fungos. No geral, destacaram-se o br√≥colis e a mandioca brava, al√©m da mandioca mansa para S. rolfsii. Os vol√°teis identificados foram oriundos da decomposi√ß√£o de br√≥colis, mamona e mandioca mansa. Foram identificados 26, 37 e 29 compostos vol√°teis para br√≥colis, mamona e mandioca mansa, respectivamente. Correla√ß√Ķes positivas e negativas foram observadas entre alguns vol√°teis e a m√©dia dos compostos com a sobreviv√™ncia das estruturas de resist√™ncia dos fitopatog√™nicos.In addition to Brassicaceae species associated with soil solarization, new materials from plants such as cassava and castor bean have shown potential to control soil phytopathogens. Thus, the present study aimed to verify the effects of incorporation and decomposition of shoot of broccoli, castor bean, and bitter and sweet cassava, associated with solarization in microcosm sets under controlled environment conditions, on the survival of resistance structures from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Race 2, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 HGI and Sclerotium rolfsii; and to identify volatile compound(s) released by the decomposition of materials, which could be related to phytopathogen inactivation. As to pathogen survival, four identical assays were installed in the microcosms, with four independent exposure periods (7, 14, 21 and 28 days). To identify volatile compounds, assays were performed under the same survival conditions, but using amber glass bottles and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detectors (GC-FID), and adopting the Solid-Phase Microextraction Technique - SPME. The treatments soil+plant materials, over the tested periods, reduced the survival of resistance structures for all fungi. In general, expressive results were found for broccoli and bitter cassava, as well as sweet cassava against S. rolfsii. The identified volatile compounds were from broccoli, castor bean and sweet cassava decomposition. The number of volatile compounds identified for broccoli, castor bean and sweet cassava were 26, 37 and 29, respectively. Positive and negative correlations were detected among some volatile compounds and their mean values and the survival of resistance structures from phytopathogens.Funda√ß√£o de Amparo √† Pesquisa do Estado de S√£o Paulo (FAPESP)Coordena√ß√£o de Aperfei√ßoamento de Pessoal de N√≠vel Superior (CAPES

    International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortiu (INICC) report, data summary of 43 countries for 2007-2012. Device-associated module

    No full text
    We report the results of an International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2007-December 2012 in 503 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care‚Äďassociated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 605,310 patients hospitalized in the INICC's ICUs for an aggregate of 3,338,396¬†days. Although device utilization in the INICC's ICUs was similar to that reported from ICUs in the U.S. in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central line‚Äďassociated bloodstream infection in the INICC's ICUs, 4.9 per 1,000 central line days, is nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.9 per 1,000 central line days reported from comparable U.S. ICUs. The overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher (16.8 vs 1.1 per 1,000 ventilator days) as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (5.5 vs 1.3 per 1,000 catheter days). Frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (42.8% vs 10%) and imipenem (42.4% vs 26.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (71.2% vs 28.8%) and imipenem (19.6% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC's ICUs compared with the ICUs of the CDC's NHSN
    corecore