17,213 research outputs found

    Do Magnetic Fields Prevent Hydrogen from Accreting onto Cool Metal-line White Dwarf Stars?

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    It is generally assumed that metals detected in the spectra of a few cool white dwarfs cannot be of primordial origin and must be accreted from the interstellar medium. However, the observed abundances of hydrogen, which should also be accreted from the interstellar medium, are lower than expected from metal accretion. Magnetic fields are thought to be the reason for this discrepancy. We have therefore obtained circular polarization spectra of the helium-rich white dwarfs GD40 and L745-46A, which both show strong metal lines as well as hydrogen. Whereas L745-46A might have a magnetic field of about -6900 G, which is about two times the field strength of 3000G necessary to repell hydrogen at the Alfen radius, only an upper limit for the field strength of GD40 of 4000G (with 99% confidence) can be set which is far off the minimum field strength of 144000G to repell hydrogen.Comment: 4 LaTeX pages, 4 eps figures, to appear in the proceedings of the 14th European Workshop on White Dwarfs, eds. D. Koester and S. Moehler, ASP Conf. Serie

    Crossed modules of racks

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    We generalize the notion of a crossed module of groups to that of a crossed module of racks. We investigate the relation to categorified racks, namely strict 2-racks, and trunk-like objects in the category of racks, generalizing the relation between crossed modules of groups and strict 2-groups. Then we explore topological applications. We show that by applying the rack-space functor, a crossed module of racks gives rise to a covering. Our main result shows how the fundamental racks associated to links upstairs and downstairs in a covering fit together to form a crossed module of racks.Comment: 25 pages, 1 figure, accepted in Homology, Homotopy and Application

    Anomalous Diffusion of particles with inertia in external potentials

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    Recently a new type of Kramers-Fokker-Planck Equation has been proposed [R. Friedrich et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 96}, 230601 (2006)] describing anomalous diffusion in external potentials. In the present paper the explicit cases of a harmonic potential and a velocity-dependend damping are incorporated. Exact relations for moments for these cases are presented and the asymptotic behaviour for long times is discussed. Interestingly the bounding potential and the additional damping by itself lead to a subdiffussive behaviour, while acting together the particle becomes localized for long times.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figure

    Flagellar swimmers oscillate between pusher- and puller-type swimming

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    Self-propulsion of cellular microswimmers generates flow signatures, commonly classified as pusher- and puller-type, which characterize hydrodynamic interactions with other cells or boundaries. Using experimentally measured beat patterns, we compute that flagellated alga and sperm oscillate between pusher and puller. Beyond a typical distance of 100 um from the swimmer, inertia attenuates oscillatory micro-flows. We show that hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers oscillate in time and are of similar magnitude as stochastic swimming fluctuations.Comment: 12 pages, 4 color figure

    Emergent Form from Structural Optimisation of the Voronoi Polyhedra Structure

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    In the course of the exploration of computational means in the architectural design process, in order to investigate more complex, adaptive geometries, the Voronoi diagram has recently gained some attention, being a three-dimensional space-filling structure which is modular but not repetitive. The project looks at the Voronoi diagram as a load-bearing structure, and whether it can be useful for structural optimisation. Hereby the edges of the Voronoi polyhedra are regarded as structural members of a statical system, which then is assessed by structural analysis software. Results seem to indicate that the Voronoi approach produces a very specific structural as well as spatial type of order. Through the dislocation of the Voronoi cells, the statical structure becomes more complex through emergent topology changes, and the initially simple spatial system becomes much more complex through emerging adjacencies and interconnections between spaces. The characteristics of the emerging form, however, lie rather in the complexity how shifted spaces and parts are fitted together, than in a radical overall emergent geometry. Spatially as well as a structurally, the form moves from a simple modular repetitive system towards a more complex adaptive one, with interconnected parts which cannot stand alone but rather form an organic whole

    A Method for Calculating the Structure of (Singular) Spacetimes in the Large

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    A formalism and its numerical implementation is presented which allows to calculate quantities determining the spacetime structure in the large directly. This is achieved by conformal techniques by which future null infinity (\Scri{}^+) and future timelike infinity (i+i^+) are mapped to grid points on the numerical grid. The determination of the causal structure of singularities, the localization of event horizons, the extraction of radiation, and the avoidance of unphysical reflections at the outer boundary of the grid, are demonstrated with calculations of spherically symmetric models with a scalar field as matter and radiation model.Comment: 29 pages, AGG2

    A NICMOS Direct Imaging Search for Giant Planets around the Single White Dwarfs in the Hyades

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    We report preliminary results from our search for massive giant planets (6-12 Jupiter masses) around the known seven single white dwarfs in the Hyades cluster at sub-arcsec separations. At an age of 625 Myr, the white dwarfs had progenitor masses of about 3 solar masses, and massive gaseous giant planets should have formed in the massive circumstellar disks around these ex-Herbig A0 stars, probably at orbital separations similar or slightly larger than that of Jupiter. Such planets would have survived the post-Main-Sequence mass loss of the parent star and would have migrated outward adiabatically to a distance of about 25 AU. At the distance of the Hyades (45 pc) this corresponds to an angular separation of 0.5 arcsec. J and H magnitudes of these giants are in the range of 20.5-23.3 mag, which can be resolved with NICMOS. The achieved sensitivities and contrast ratios agree well with simulations. Preliminary evaluation of the NICMOS data set did not reveal any evidence for neither planetary mass companions with masses down to about 10 Jupiter masses nor brown dwarfs around any of the seven white dwarfs for separations larger than 0.5 arcsec.Comment: 14th European Workshop on White Dwarf
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