278 research outputs found

    Vortical field amplification and particle acceleration at rippled shocks

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    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) shocks are believed to accelerate charged particles and to generate strong turbulence in the post-shock flow. From high-energy observations in the past decade, a magnetic field at SNR shocks largely exceeding the shock-compressed interstellar field has been inferred. We outline how such a field amplification results from a small-scale dynamo process downstream of the shock, providing an explicit expression for the turbulence back-reaction to the fluid whirling. The spatial scale of the X−X-ray rims and the short time-variability can be obtained by using reasonable parameters for the interstellar turbulence. We show that such a vortical field saturation is faster than the acceleration time of the synchrotron emitting energetic electrons.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; to appear in the proceedings of the RICAP-13, Roma International Conference on AstroParticle Physic

    Early-time velocity autocorrelation for charged particles diffusion and drift in static magnetic turbulence

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    Using test-particle simulations, we investigate the temporal dependence of the two-point velocity correlation function for charged particles scattering in a time-independent spatially fluctuating magnetic field derived from a three-dimensional isotropic turbulence power spectrum. Such a correlation function allowed us to compute the spatial coefficients of diffusion both parallel and perpendicular to the average magnetic field. Our simulations confirm the dependence of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient on turbulence energy density and particle energy predicted previously by a model for early-time charged particle transport. Using the computed diffusion coefficients, we exploit the particle velocity autocorrelation to investigate the time-scale over which the particles "decorrelate" from the solution to the unperturbed equation of motion. Decorrelation time-scales are evaluated for parallel and perpendicular motions, including the drift of the particles from the local magnetic field line. The regimes of strong and weak magnetic turbulence are compared for various values of the ratio of the particle gyroradius to the correlation length of the magnetic turbulence. Our simulation parameters can be applied to energetic particles in the interplanetary space, cosmic rays at the supernova shocks, and cosmic-rays transport in the intergalactic medium.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, The Astrophyical Journal in pres

    On the physical processes which lie at the bases of time variability of GRBs

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    The relative-space-time-transformation (RSTT) paradigm and the interpretation of the burst-structure (IBS) paradigm are applied to probe the origin of the time variability of GRBs. Again GRB 991216 is used as a prototypical case, thanks to the precise data from the CGRO, RXTE and Chandra satellites. It is found that with the exception of the relatively inconspicuous but scientifically very important signal originating from the initial ``proper gamma ray burst'' (P-GRB), all the other spikes and time variabilities can be explained by the interaction of the accelerated-baryonic-matter pulse with inhomogeneities in the interstellar matter. This can be demonstrated by using the RSTT paradigm as well as the IBS paradigm, to trace a typical spike observed in arrival time back to the corresponding one in the laboratory time. Using these paradigms, the identification of the physical nature of the time variablity of the GRBs can be made most convincingly. It is made explicit the dependence of a) the intensities of the afterglow, b) the spikes amplitude and c) the actual time structure on the Lorentz gamma factor of the accelerated-baryonic-matter pulse. In principle it is possible to read off from the spike structure the detailed density contrast of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy, even at very high redshift.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figure

    The EMBH model in GRB 991216 and GRB 980425

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    This is a summary of the two talks presented at the Rome GRB meeting by C.L. Bianco and R. Ruffini. It is shown that by respecting the Relative Space-Time Transformation (RSTT) paradigm and the Interpretation of the Burst Structure (IBS) paradigm, important inferences are possible: a) in the new physics occurring in the energy sources of GRBs, b) on the structure of the bursts and c) on the composition of the interstellar matter surrounding the source.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, in the Proceedings of the "Third Rome Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Afterglow Era", 17-20 September 2002, M. Feroci, F. Frontera, N. Masetti, L. Piro (editors

    The Space Environment and Atmospheric Joule Heating of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet TOI700-d

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    We investigate the space environment conditions near the Earth-size planet TOI~700~d using a set of numerical models for the stellar corona and wind, the planetary magnetosphere, and the planetary ionosphere. We drive our simulations using a scaled-down stellar input and a scaled-up solar input in order to obtain two independent solutions. We find that for the particular parameters used in our study, the stellar wind conditions near the planet are not very extreme -- slightly stronger than that near the Earth in terms of the stellar wind ram pressure and the intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field. Thus, the space environment near TOI700-d may not be extremely harmful to the planetary atmosphere, assuming the planet resembles the Earth. Nevertheless, we stress that the stellar input parameters and the actual planetary parameters are unconstrained, and different parameters may result in a much greater effect on the atmosphere of TOI700-d. Finally, we compare our results to solar wind measurements in the solar system and stress that modest stellar wind conditions may not guarantee atmospheric retention of exoplanets.Comment: accepted to Ap

    GRB 970228 Within the EMBH Model

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    We consider the gamma-ray burst of 1997 February 28 (GRB 970228) within the ElectroMagnetic Black Hole (EMBH) model. We first determine the value of the two free parameters that characterize energetically the GRB phenomenon in the EMBH model, that is to say the dyadosphere energy, Edya=5.1×1052E_{dya}=5.1\times10^{52} ergs, and the baryonic remnant mass MBM_{B} in units of EdyaE_{dya}, B=MBc2/Edya=3.0×10−3B=M_{B}c^{2}/E_{dya}=3.0\times10^{-3}. Having in this way estimated the energy emitted during the beam-target phase, we evaluate the role of the InterStellar Medium (ISM) number density (nISM_{ISM}) and of the ratio R{\cal R} between the effective emitting area and the total surface area of the GRB source, in reproducing the observed profiles of the GRB 970228 prompt emission and X-ray (2-10 keV energy band) afterglow. The importance of the ISM distribution three-dimensional treatment around the central black hole is also stressed in this analysis.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, to appear in the Proceedings of the Los Alamos "Gamma Ray Burst Symposium" in Santa Fe, New Mexico, September 8-12 2003 (AIP Conf. Ser.), CHAPTER: GRB Connection to Supernova
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