69 research outputs found

    Experimental evidence of shock mitigation in a Hertzian tapered chain

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    We present an experimental study of the mechanical impulse propagation through a horizontal alignment of elastic spheres of progressively decreasing diameter ϕn\phi_n, namely a tapered chain. Experimentally, the diameters of spheres which interact via the Hertz potential are selected to keep as close as possible to an exponential decrease, ϕn+1=(1−q)ϕn\phi_{n+1}=(1-q)\phi_n, where the experimental tapering factor is either q1≃5.60q_1\simeq5.60~% or q2≃8.27q_2\simeq8.27~%. In agreement with recent numerical results, an impulse initiated in a monodisperse chain (a chain of identical beads) propagates without shape changes, and progressively transfer its energy and momentum to a propagating tail when it further travels in a tapered chain. As a result, the front pulse of this wave decreases in amplitude and accelerates. Both effects are satisfactorily described by the hard spheres approximation, and basically, the shock mitigation is due to partial transmissions, from one bead to the next, of momentum and energy of the front pulse. In addition when small dissipation is included, a better agreement with experiments is found. A close analysis of the loading part of the experimental pulses demonstrates that the front wave adopts itself a self similar solution as it propagates in the tapered chain. Finally, our results corroborate the capability of these chains to thermalize propagating impulses and thereby act as shock absorbing devices.Comment: ReVTeX, 7 pages with 6 eps, accepted for Phys. Rev. E (Related papers on http://www.supmeca.fr/perso/jobs/

    Wave localization in strongly nonlinear Hertzian chains with mass defect

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    We investigate the dynamical response of a mass defect in a one-dimensional non-loaded horizontal chain of identical spheres which interact via the nonlinear Hertz potential. Our experiments show that the interaction of a solitary wave with a light intruder excites localized mode. In agreement with dimensional analysis, we find that the frequency of localized oscillations exceeds the incident wave frequency spectrum and nonlinearly depends on the size of the intruder and on the incident wave strength. The absence of tensile stress between grains allows some gaps to open, which in turn induce a significant enhancement of the oscillations amplitude. We performed numerical simulations that precisely describe our observations without any adjusting parameters.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, submitted for publicatio

    Experimental evidence of solitary wave interaction in Hertzian chains

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    We study experimentally the interaction between two solitary waves that approach one to another in a linear chain of spheres interacting via the Hertz potential. When these counter propagating waves collide, they cross each other and a phase shift respect to the noninteracting waves is introduced, as a result of the nonlinear interaction potential. This observation is well reproduced by our numerical simulations and it is shown to be independent of viscoelastic dissipation at the beads contact. In addition, when the collision of equal amplitude and synchronized counter propagating waves takes place, we observe that two secondary solitary waves emerge from the interacting region. The amplitude of secondary solitary waves is proportional to the amplitude of incident waves. However, secondary solitary waves are stronger when the collision occurs at the middle contact in chains with even number of beads. Although numerical simulations correctly predict the existence of these waves, experiments show that their respective amplitude are significantly larger than predicted. We attribute this discrepancy to the rolling friction at the beads contacts during solitary wave propagation

    Endoglin Regulates Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Activity

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    Jerkic, Mirjana[et alt.] 9 p.-8 fig.The endoglin heterozygous (Eng+/−) mouse, which serves as a model of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), was shown to express reduced levels of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) with impaired activity. Because of intricate changes in vasomotor function in the Eng+/− mice and the potential interactions between the NO- and prostaglandin-producing pathways, we assessed the expression and function of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms. A specific upregulation of COX-2 in the vascular endothelium and increased urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 were observed in the Eng+/− mice. Specific COX-2 inhibition with parecoxib transiently increased arterial pressure in Eng+/− but not in Eng+/+ mice. Transfection of endoglin in L6E9 myoblasts, shown previously to stimulate eNOS expression, led to downregulation of COX-2 with no change in COX-1. In addition, COX-2 promoter activity and protein levels were inversely correlated with endoglin levels, in doxycyclin-inducible endothelial cells. Chronic NO synthesis inhibition with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester induced a marked increase in COX-2 only in the normal Eng+/+ mice. Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester also increased COX-2 expression and promoter activity in doxycyclin-inducible endoglin expressing endothelial cells, but not in control cells. The level of COX-2 expression following transforming growth factor-β1 treatment was less in endoglin than in mock transfected L6E9 myoblasts and was higher in human endothelial cells silenced for endoglin expression. Our results indicate that endoglin is involved in the regulation of COX-2 activity. Furthermore, reduced endoglin levels and associated impaired NO production may be responsible, at least in part, for augmented COX-2 expression and activity in the Eng+/− miceThis work was supported by grants from Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia (SAF2001/1701 to J.M.L.-N. and SAF2004–01390 to C.B.), Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria (PI020200 to C.B.), HHT Foundation International to C.B., and by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (T5016) to M.L. M.J. was supported by a Fellowship from Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigación Nefrológica. C.P.H.V. was supported by NIH grant #P2015555 from the National Center for Research ResourcesPeer reviewe

    In Silico analysis of Gastric carcinoma Serial Analysis of Gene Expression libraries reveals different profiles associated with ethnicity

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    Worldwide gastric carcinoma has marked geographical variations and worse outcome in patients from the West compared to the East. Although these differences has been explained by better diagnostic criteria, improved staging methods and more radical surgery, emerging evidence supports the concept that gene expression differences associated to ethnicity might contribute to this disparate outcome. Here, we collected datasets from 4 normal and 11 gastric carcinoma Serial Gene Expression Analysis (SAGE) libraries from two different ethnicities. All normal SAGE libraries as well as 7 tumor libraries were from the West and 4 tumor libraries were from the East. These datasets we compare by Correspondence Analysis and Support Tree analysis and specific differences in tags expression were identified by Significance Analysis for Microarray. Tags to gene assignments were performed by CGAP-SAGE Genie or TAGmapper. The analysis of global transcriptome shows a clear separation between normal and tumor libraries with 90 tags differentially expressed. A clear separation was also found between the West and the East tumor libraries with 54 tags differentially expressed. Tags to gene assignments identified 15 genes, 5 of them with significant higher expression in the West libraries in comparison to the East libraries. qRT-PCR in cell lines from west and east origin confirmed these differences. Interestingly, two of these genes have been associated to aggressiveness (COL1A1 and KLK10). In conclusion we found that in silico analysis of SAGE libraries from two different ethnicities reveal differences in gene expression profile. These expression differences might contribute to explain the disparate outcome between the West and the East
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