24 research outputs found

    Co-reactant-on-Demand ECL: Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence by the in Situ Production of S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub><sup>2–</sup> at Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

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    A novel <i>co-reactant-free</i> electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) system is developed where Ru­(bpy)<sub>3</sub><sup>2+</sup> emission is obtained on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The method exploits the unique ability of BDD to operate at very high oxidation potential in aqueous solutions and to promote the conversion of inert SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2–</sup> into the reactive co-reactant S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub><sup>2–</sup>. This novel procedure is rather straightforward, not requiring any particular electrode geometry, and since the co-reactant is only generated in situ, the interference with biological samples is minimized. The underlying mechanism is similar to that of the Ru­(bpy)<sub>3</sub><sup>2+</sup>/S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>8</sub><sup>2–</sup> system; however, the intensity of the emitted signal increases linearly with [SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2–</sup>] up to ∌0.6 M, with possible implications for analytical uses of the proposed procedure

    Difference in average of adjusted annual cost (in euros) per patient, by number of coexisting chronic diseases according to the presence of certain selected diseases.

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    <p>Note: These series have been truncated, because patients with +10 chronic diseases are very scarce (<0.01% of total population); beyond such limit, the groups exhibit a great variability in their results due to their small size.</p

    Averages of chronic diseases and percentage of patients with comorbidity in patient groups according to sex, age and deprivation index.

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    <p>Note: Deprivation index is arranged in quintiles. The higher socioeconomic status is represented as 1, while the lowest one corresponds to 5).</p

    Difference in average of adjusted annual cost (in euros) per patient, by number of coexisting chronic diseases according to the presence of certain selected diseases.

    No full text
    <p>Difference in average of adjusted annual cost (in euros) per patient, by number of coexisting chronic diseases according to the presence of certain selected diseases.</p

    Dynamic Mapping of Electrochemiluminescence Reactivity in Space: Application to Bead-Based Assays

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    As an electrochemical technique offering an optical readout, electrochemiluminescence (ECL) evolved recently into a powerful microscopy technique with the visualization of a wide range of microscopic entities. However, the dynamic imaging of transient ECL events did not receive intensive attention due to the limited number of electrogenerated photons. Here, the reaction kinetics of the model ECL bioassay system was revealed by dynamic imaging of single [Ru(bpy)3]2+-functionalized beads in the presence of the efficient tripropylamine coreactant. The time profile behavior of ECL emission, the variations of the ECL layer thickness, and the position of maximum ECL intensity over time were investigated, which were not achieved by static imaging in previous studies. Moreover, the dynamics of the ECL emission were confronted with the simulation. The reported dynamic ECL imaging allows the investigation of the ECL kinetics and mechanisms operating in bioassays and cell microscopy
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