68 research outputs found

    Sustainable Development Planning in Kosovo

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    After eighteen months of intense preparation and work, in April 2003 the signing of MEMORANDUM OF COOPERATIVE RESEARCH between the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION’S REGIONAL HEADQUARTERS ALLIED FORCES SOUTHERN EUROPE (AFSOUTH) and the DEPARTMENT FOR STUDIES ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND TERRITORY (DISAT) of the UNIVERSITY OF SALERNO was finalised. Within the framework of cooperation set up between NATO (AFSOUTH – NAPOLI) and DiSAT, we have been invited to carry out activities of study and research regarding the complex social, economic and security problems in Kosovo. Therefore, with the aim of contributing to the consolidation of the process of peace and development in Kosovo, interdisciplinary research has been carried out in the Region last September, preliminary to the drawing up of a REPORT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN KOSOVO. The concept of security, traditionally seen from a purely military perspective, has gradually grown to embrace economic aspects, political-cultural aspects as well as others of a different nature. To guarantee security, then, means not so much or at least, not only, to increase the weight of traditional power factors but rather to reduce to a minimum the conditions of specific vulnerability. Functional to this aim would be to achieve an accurate analysis in order to consent the recommending of such actions that could avoid the most critical and dangerous union of forces. A return to the study then of the problems that encourage these phenomena, their dimension and collocation in space appears to be the longest and most laborious way but also the only one possible. An analysis of the present day economic and political questions in the region must not neglect, furthermore, the considerable imbalances existing in the region between population and uses of the resources. Infact, the report, after having indicated the principal lines of development, follows with the formulation of projects well inserted into a strategic framework, so as to overcome the gap existing between plans, programmes, laws and recommendations on the one hand and real capacity and determination to succeed on the other.

    European Tourism Regionalization and Globalisation

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    The advent of the Third Millenium, as do all periods of transition, offers the starting point for proceeding towards a new interpretation of the process of development in the field of tourism which enterprise appears to lend itself as a contribution towards the achievement of certain objectives or aims of the European Union (UE), such as the protection of the environment, sustainable development, the improvement of the quality of living standards, the overcoming of conflicts for enduring peace, the growth of European regions and of employment and not least the enacting of a policy of cohesion. During recent years numerous factors such as the globalisation of the economy, the new economy, a better functioning of a single Market and the introduction of the Euro currency have all contributed to a greater internationalisation of the streams/flows and at the same time, have obliged Member states to face new challenges, which can either constitute opportunities or risks, according to the actions which will be undertaken and according to the capacity of anticipation, programming and managing of such change. On such a premise will be founded the necessity to select an integrated policy of tourism on a communitary level which, taking into consideration the specificity of the relevant sectors, will guarantee the European Community its place as representative of the most important geographical space on the world tourist market.

    Safety of extended interval dosing immune checkpoint inhibitors:a multicenter cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Real-life spectrum and survival implications of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients treated with extended interval dosing (ED) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are unknown. METHODS: Characteristics of 812 consecutive solid cancer patients who received at least 1 cycle of ED monotherapy (pembrolizumab 400 mg Q6W or nivolumab 480 mg Q4W) after switching from canonical interval dosing (CD; pembrolizumab 200 mg Q3W or nivolumab 240 mg Q2W) or treated upfront with ED were retrieved. The primary objective was to compare irAEs patterns within the same population (before and after switch to ED). irAEs spectrum in patients treated upfront with ED and association between irAEs and overall survival were also described. RESULTS: A total of 550 (68%) patients started ICIs with CD and switched to ED. During CD, 225 (41%) patients developed any grade and 17 (3%) G3 or G4 irAEs; after switching to ED, any grade and G3 or G4 irAEs were experienced by 155 (36%) and 20 (5%) patients. Switching to ED was associated with a lower probability of any grade irAEs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64 to 0.99; P = .047), whereas no difference for G3 or G4 events was noted (aOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 0.81 to 2.94; P = .18). Among patients who started upfront with ED (n = 232, 32%), 107 (41%) developed any grade and 14 (5%) G3 or G4 irAEs during ED. Patients with irAEs during ED had improved overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.82; P = .004 after switching; aHR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.93; P = .025 upfront). CONCLUSIONS: Switching ICI treatment from CD and ED did not increase the incidence of irAEs and represents a safe option also outside clinical trials.</p

    High familial burden of cancer correlates with improved outcome from immunotherapy in patients with NSCLC independent of somatic DNA damage response gene status

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    Family history of cancer (FHC) is a hallmark of cancer risk and an independent predictor of outcome, albeit with uncertain biologic foundations. We previously showed that FHC-high patients experienced prolonged overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) following PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. To validate our findings in patients with NSCLC, we evaluated two multicenter cohorts of patients with metastatic NSCLC receiving either first-line pembrolizumab or chemotherapy. From each cohort, 607 patients were randomly case-control matched accounting for FHC, age, performance status, and disease burden. Compared to FHC-low/negative, FHC-high patients experienced longer OS (HR 0.67 [95% CI 0.46-0.95], p\u2009=\u20090.0281), PFS (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.48-0.89]; p\u2009=\u20090.0074) and higher disease control rates (DCR, 86.4% vs 67.5%, p\u2009=\u20090.0096), within the pembrolizumab cohort. No significant associations were found between FHC and OS/PFS/DCR within the chemotherapy cohort. We explored the association between FHC and somatic DNA damage response (DDR) gene alterations as underlying mechanism to our findings in a parallel cohort of 118 NSCLC, 16.9% of whom were FHC-high. The prevalence of\u2009 65\u20091 somatic DDR gene mutation was 20% and 24.5% (p\u2009=\u20090.6684) in FHC-high vs. FHC-low/negative, with no differences in tumor mutational burden (6.0 vs. 7.6 Mut/Mb, p\u2009=\u20090.6018) and tumor cell PD-L1 expression. FHC-high status identifies NSCLC patients with improved outcomes from pembrolizumab but not chemotherapy, independent of somatic DDR gene status. Prospective studies evaluating FHC alongside germline genetic testing are warranted

    Acute Delta Hepatitis in Italy spanning three decades (1991–2019): Evidence for the effectiveness of the hepatitis B vaccination campaign

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    Updated incidence data of acute Delta virus hepatitis (HDV) are lacking worldwide. Our aim was to evaluate incidence of and risk factors for acute HDV in Italy after the introduction of the compulsory vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 1991. Data were obtained from the National Surveillance System of acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA). Independent predictors of HDV were assessed by logistic-regression analysis. The incidence of acute HDV per 1-million population declined from 3.2 cases in 1987 to 0.04 in 2019, parallel to that of acute HBV per 100,000 from 10.0 to 0.39 cases during the same period. The median age of cases increased from 27 years in the decade 1991-1999 to 44 years in the decade 2010-2019 (p &lt; .001). Over the same period, the male/female ratio decreased from 3.8 to 2.1, the proportion of coinfections increased from 55% to 75% (p = .003) and that of HBsAg positive acute hepatitis tested for by IgM anti-HDV linearly decreased from 50.1% to 34.1% (p &lt; .001). People born abroad accounted for 24.6% of cases in 2004-2010 and 32.1% in 2011-2019. In the period 2010-2019, risky sexual behaviour (O.R. 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.8) was the sole independent predictor of acute HDV; conversely intravenous drug use was no longer associated (O.R. 1.25; 95%CI: 0.15-10.22) with this. In conclusion, HBV vaccination was an effective measure to control acute HDV. Intravenous drug use is no longer an efficient mode of HDV spread. Testing for IgM-anti HDV is a grey area requiring alert. Acute HDV in foreigners should be monitored in the years to come

    Smoking status during first-line immunotherapy and chemotherapy in NSCLC patients: A case–control matched analysis from a large multicenter study

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    Background: Improved outcome in tobacco smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following immunotherapy has previously been reported. However, little is known regarding this association during first-line immunotherapy in patients with high PD-L1 expression. In this study we compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status of two large multicenter cohorts. Methods: We compared clinical outcomes according to the smoking status (never smokers vs. current/former smokers) of two retrospective multicenter cohorts of metastatic NSCLC patients, treated with first-line pembrolizumab and platinum-based chemotherapy. Results: A total of 962 NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% who received first-line pembrolizumab and 462 NSCLC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the study. Never smokers were confirmed to have a significantly higher risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.49 [95% CI: 1.15–1.92], p = 0.0022) and death (HR = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.02–1.87], p = 0.0348) within the pembrolizumab cohort. On the contrary, a nonsignificant trend towards a reduced risk of disease progression (HR = 0.74 [95% CI: 0.52–1.05], p = 0.1003) and death (HR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.45–1.01], p = 0.0593) were reported for never smokers within the chemotherapy cohort. After a random case–control matching, 424 patients from both cohorts were paired. Within the matched pembrolizumab cohort, never smokers had a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.17–2.40], p = 0.0045) and a nonsignificant trend towards a shortened overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.32 [95% CI: 0.84–2.07], p = 0.2205). On the contrary, never smokers had a significantly longer PFS (HR = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49–0.95], p = 0.0255) and OS (HR = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.45–0.97], p = 0,0356) compared to current/former smoker patients within the matched chemotherapy cohort. On pooled multivariable analysis, the interaction term between smoking status and treatment modality was concordantly statistically significant with respect to ORR (p = 0.0074), PFS (p = 0.0001) and OS (p = 0.0020), confirming the significantly different impact of smoking status across the two cohorts. Conclusions: Among metastatic NSCLC patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50% receiving first-line pembrolizumab, current/former smokers experienced improved PFS and OS. On the contrary, worse outcomes were reported among current/former smokers receiving first-line chemotherapy

    Technological Clusters to Limit Barriers to SME Internationalisation

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    The aim of this paper is to devise and illustrate a model of support for innovation in Small and Medium Sized Enterprise (SME) involving bottom up territory, Universities and Research Centres of Excellence. From a strategic asset perspective, the goal is to enhance particular sections of regional specifics through innovative products and processes, rendering ‘new’ traditional production and/or creating innovative SMEs with a focus on ‘competence’ in exploiting local resources for the manufacture of intrinsically high value goods particularly appreciated on international markets. The process of digital innovation for technological and economic enhancement on the part of SMEs however, can occur only with awareness of the implications of global challenges
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