86 research outputs found

    HPV as a marker for molecular characterization in head and neck oncology: Looking for a standardization of clinical use and of detection method(s) in clinical practice

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    Background: A consensus about the most appropriate diagnostic method(s) for head and neck human papillomavirus (HPV)\u2010induced carcinogenesis is still lacking because most of the commercially available assays have been designed for the cervix. Methods: This article summarizes current data and trends concerning HPV diagnostic strategies in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Six main approaches are described. Results: The diagnostic gold standard for HPV\u2010related OPSCC, focusing on E6/E7 mRNA detection, requires fresh samples. Because most frequently available samples are formalin\u2010fixed paraffin\u2010embedded (FFPE), the pros and cons of the different approaches were analyzed. Conclusions: In the FFPE samples, the immunohistochemistry of p16, which is considered appropriate to assess HPV\u2010driven carcinogenesis in OPSCC according to the 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, may not be specific enough to become the diagnostic standard in the perspective of treatment deintensification. p16 may play a safer role in combination with another highly sensible assay. Other promising approaches are based on DNA detection through real\u2010time polymerase chain reaction and RNAscope

    Characterization of the ear canal bacterial flora present in hearing Aids (HA) wearing subjects

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    The use of hearing aids (HA) is considered a predisposing factor for ear microbial infections. We undertook this study to compare the presence and nature of the microbial flora inhabiting of ears of HA and non-HA (nHA) users. Swab samples of the ears of HA and nHA users were collected from the Institute of Otolaryngology, “Cattolica del Sacro Cuore” University “Agostino Gemelli”, Rome, Italy. Swab samples were taken from the ear canal of 57 HA and 33 nHA users. The components of the microbial flora present on each swab sample were identified and characterized at the level of species. A total of 41 different bacterial species were identified. A statistically significant prevalence of polymicrobial communities was found in ears presenting signs of inflammation (2.5 ± 1.7 vs 2.1 ± 1.3; P = 0.02) and in HA users (2.3 ± 1.2 vs 1.7 ± 1.0; P = 0.002). Few putative pathogens were detected. Candida albicans spp. was not isolated in our study. A small number of swab samples presented no microbial growth. Bacterial species isolated from HA users with and without inflammation were assayed for the ability to form a biofilm. Among gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, S. aureus, CoNS, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae were found to be strong biofilm producers. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, isolated only from the ears of HA and nHA users presenting signs of inflammation, were further analyzed for their antibiotic-resistance profile and characterized by the Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) assay. The highest rates of antibacterial resistance were in S. aureus to a penicillin (75.5%) and in P. aeruginosa, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ertapenem, tigecycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (100%). Moreover, three S. aureus strains (37.5%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Of the eight S. aureus isolates, we identified six sequence types (ST) indicating that 75% are likely independent clones. For what it concerned P. aeruginosa, six different STs were assigned. Interestingly, two out of the six strains presented newly identified ST values. This study sheds new light on the combined effect of the presence of HA devices and signs of external ear inflammation on the composition of the ear bacterial flora. Our results reinforce the need to practice careful hygiene of HA devices to prevent serious ear canal infections

    Functional results of exclusive interventional radiotherapy (brachytherapy) in the treatment of nasal vestibule carcinomas.

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    Surgery, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and interventional radiotherapy (IRT, BrachyTherapy BT) are the current therapeutic options for nose vestibule (NV) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this article, we evaluate the nose functional parameters of patients affected by SCCs of the NV, primarily treated by interstitial IRT comparing them with healthy controls and with patients treated with intensity-modulated EBRT.Ten patients treated by using IRT (group 1), 10 healthy controls and eight patients treated by EBRT (group 2) on the region of the nose were submitted to clinical evaluation (with the NOSE scale score), rhinomanometry, olfactory testing, nasal citology, and evaluation of mucociliary clearance through saccharine test.No long-term skin or cartilaginous toxicity are recorded. The olfactometry threshold discrimination identification TDI is lower in EB group. The mean NOSE scale score was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 and healthy controls (p0.05). The distribution of cytologic patterns resulted significantly different as well. Patients treated by EB have a significantly impaired mucociliary clearance, with a mean time for the transport of the stained marker, which is more than double in the patients treated by EB than in those treated with IRT (p0.001).Nasal function and cytological findings are significantly better, substantially preserved, in patients treated by IRT than in those treated by EBRT, bringing new relevant evidence for the establishment of interstitial IRT as the new standard for the treatment of the primary lesion in cT1 and cT2 -Wang staging NV SCCs

    Medical-surgical management and clinical outcome in cervical abscesses.

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    Introduction: This study aims at defining through a retrospective evaluation, the clinical parameters affecting the clinical course and consequently the management of patients presenting with cervicofacial abscesses. Methodology: A total of 394 patients diagnosed with abscess at the University of Sassari Otorhinolaryngology Division between 2009 and 2017 were included; among these, eleven patients were diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. Personal and clinical parameters including the LRINEC score and the medical and/or surgical treatment used were analyzed for each patient. The most frequently affected site was the peritonsillar space (76.9%), followed by the parapharyngeal space. Results: Mean age was 41(±17) years, the male population was slightly overrepresented (68%). An average of 6 (±7) days of hospitalization duration was recorded. The mortality rate was confirmed to be relatively low (1/349 patients) and was reported only in one patient diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis (1/11). Conclusion: Diagnosis, correct clinical definition and early medical-surgical treatment of neck abscesses were crucial to reduce complications; LRNEC score, C-reactive protein, glycemia and creatininemia proved to be reliable prognostic indicators of difficult patient management and risk of complications

    HPV and EBV Infections in Neck Metastases from Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Another Virus-Related Neoplastic Disease in the Head and Neck Region

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    Approximately 1-9 % of all head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are neck metastases from clinically undetectable primary tumors. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are proven carcinogenic factors that are associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in neck metastases from unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma

    Prevalence of HPV Infection in Racial-Ethnic Subgroups of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

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    The landscape of HPV infection in racial/ethnic subgroups of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients has not been evaluated carefully. In this study, a meta-analysis examined the prevalence of HPV in HNC patients of African ancestry. Additionally, a pooled analysis of subject-level data was also performed to investigate HPV prevalence and patterns of p16 (CDNK2A) expression amongst different racial groups. Eighteen publications (N = 798 Black HNC patients) were examined in the meta-analysis, and the pooled analysis included 29 datasets comprised of 3,129 HNC patients of diverse racial/ethnic background. The meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of HPV16 was higher among Blacks with oropharyngeal cancer than Blacks with non-oropharyngeal cancer. However, there was great heterogeneity observed among studies (Q test P<0.0001). In the pooled analysis, after adjusting for each study, year of diagnosis, age, gender and smoking status, the prevalence of HPV16/18 in oropharyngeal cancer patients was highest in Whites (61.1%), followed by 58.0% in Blacks and 25.2% in Asians (P<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in HPV16/18 prevalence in non-oropharyngeal cancer by race (P=0.682). With regard to the pattern of HPV16/18 status and p16 expression, White patients had the highest proportion of HPV16/18+/p16+ oropharyngeal cancer (52.3%), while Asians and Blacks had significantly lower proportions (23.0% and 22.6%, respectively) [P <0.0001]. Our findings suggest that the pattern of HPV16/18 status and p16 expression in oropharyngeal cancer appears to differ by race and this may contribute to survival disparities

    Dupilumab in the treatment of severe uncontrolled chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP): A multicentric observational Phase IV real-life study (DUPIREAL)

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    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is associated with significant morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life. Findings from clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of dupilumab in CRSwNP, although real-world evidence is still limited. Methods This Phase IV real-life, observational, multicenter study assessed the effectiveness and safety of dupilumab in patients with severe uncontrolled CRSwNP (n = 648) over the first year of treatment. We collected data at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of follow-up. We focused on nasal polyps score (NPS), symptoms, and olfactory function. We stratified outcomes by comorbidities, previous surgery, and adherence to intranasal corticosteroids, and examined the success rates based on current guidelines, as well as potential predictors of response at each timepoint. Results We observed a significant decrease in NPS from a median value of 6 (IQR 5–6) at baseline to 1.0 (IQR 0.0–2.0) at 12 months (p < .001), and a significant decrease in Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test-22 (SNOT-22) from a median score of 58 (IQR 49–70) at baseline to 11 (IQR 6–21; p < .001) at 12 months. Sniffin' Sticks scores showed a significant increase over 12 months (p < .001) compared to baseline. The results were unaffected by concomitant diseases, number of previous surgeries, and adherence to topical steroids, except for minor differences in rapidity of action. An excellent-moderate response was observed in 96.9% of patients at 12 months based on EPOS 2020 criteria. Conclusions Our findings from this large-scale real-life study support the effectiveness of dupilumab as an add-on therapy in patients with severe uncontrolled CRSwNP in reducing polyp size and improving the quality of life, severity of symptoms, nasal congestion, and smell

    Prevalence of HPV infection in racial–ethnic subgroups of head and neck cancer patients

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    The landscape of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in racial/ethnic subgroups of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients has not been evaluated carefully. In this study, a meta-analysis examined the prevalence of HPV in HNC patients of African ancestry. Additionally, a pooled analysis of subject-level data was also performed to investigate HPV prevalence and patterns of p16 (CDNK2A) expression amongst different racial groups. Eighteen publications (N=798 Black HNC patients) were examined in the meta-analysis, and the pooled analysis included 29 datasets comprised of 3129 HNC patients of diverse racial/ethnic background. The meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of HPV16 was higher among Blacks with oropharyngeal cancer than Blacks with non-oropharyngeal cancer. However, there was great heterogeneity observed among studies (Q test P<0.0001). In the pooled analysis, after adjusting for each study, year of diagnosis, age, gender and smoking status, the prevalence of HPV16,18 in oropharyngeal cancer patients was highest in Whites (61.1%), followed by 58.0% in Blacks and 25.2% in Asians (P<0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in HPV16,18 prevalence in non-oropharyngeal cancer by race (P=0.682). With regard to the pattern of HPV16,18 status and p16 expression, White patients had the highest proportion of HPV16,18+/p16+ oropharyngeal cancer (52.3%), while Asians and Blacks had significantly lower proportions (23.0 and 22.6%, respectively) [P<0.0001]. Our findings suggest that the pattern of HPV16,18 status and p16 expression in oropharyngeal cancer appears to differ by race and this may contribute to survival disparities

    Global wealth disparities drive adherence to COVID-safe pathways in head and neck cancer surgery

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    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries
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