20,039 research outputs found

    Prompt energization of relativistic and highly relativistic electrons during a substorm interval: Van Allen Probes observations

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    Abstract On 17 March 2013, a large magnetic storm significantly depleted the multi-MeV radiation belt. We present multi-instrument observations from the Van Allen Probes spacecraft Radiation Belt Storm Probe A and Radiation Belt Storm Probe B at ~6 Re in the midnight sector magnetosphere and from ground-based ionospheric sensors during a substorm dipolarization followed by rapid reenergization of multi-MeV electrons. A 50% increase in magnetic field magnitude occurred simultaneously with dramatic increases in 100 keV electron fluxes and a 100 times increase in VLF wave intensity. The 100 keV electrons and intense VLF waves provide a seed population and energy source for subsequent radiation belt enhancements. Highly relativistic (\u3e2 MeV) electron fluxes increased immediately at L* ~ 4.5 and 4.5 MeV flux increased \u3e90 times at L* = 4 over 5 h. Although plasmasphere expansion brings the enhanced radiation belt multi-MeV fluxes inside the plasmasphere several hours postsubstorm, we localize their prompt reenergization during the event to regions outside the plasmasphere. Key Points Substorm dynamics are important for highly relativistic electron energization Cold plasma preconditioning is significant for rapid relativistic energization Relativistic / highly relativistic electron energization can occur in \u3c 5 hrs

    Solid propellant rocket motor internal ballistics performance variation analysis, phase 3

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    Results of research aimed at improving the predictability of off nominal internal ballistics performance of solid propellant rocket motors (SRMs) including thrust imbalance between two SRMs firing in parallel are reported. The potential effects of nozzle throat erosion on internal ballistic performance were studied and a propellant burning rate low postulated. The propellant burning rate model when coupled with the grain deformation model permits an excellent match between theoretical results and test data for the Titan IIIC, TU455.02, and the first Space Shuttle SRM (DM-1). Analysis of star grain deformation using an experimental model and a finite element model shows the star grain deformation effects for the Space Shuttle to be small in comparison to those of the circular perforated grain. An alternative technique was developed for predicting thrust imbalance without recourse to the Monte Carlo computer program. A scaling relationship used to relate theoretical results to test results may be applied to the alternative technique of predicting thrust imbalance or to the Monte Carlo evaluation. Extended investigation into the effect of strain rate on propellant burning rate leads to the conclusion that the thermoelastic effect is generally negligible for both steadily increasing pressure loads and oscillatory loads

    A study to explore the use of orbital remote sensing to determine native arid plant distribution

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    The author has identified the following significant results. It is possible to determine, from ERTS imagery, native arid plant distribution. Using techniques of multispectral masking and extensive fieldwork, three native vegetation communities were defined and mapped in the Avra Valley study area. A map was made of the Yuma area with the aid of ground truth correlations between areas of desert pavement visible on ERTS images and unique vegetation types. With the exception of the Yuma soil-vegetation correlation phenomena, only very gross differentiations of desert vegetation communities can be made from ERTS data. Vegetation communities with obvious vegetation density differences such as saguaro-paloverde, creosote bush, and riparian vegetation can be separated on the Avra Valley imagery while more similar communities such as creosote bush and saltbush could not be differentiated. It is suggested that large differences in vegetation density are needed before the signatures of two different vegetation types can be differentiated on ERTS imagery. This is due to the relatively insignificant contribution of vegetation to the total radiometric signature of a given desert scene. Where more detailed information concerning the vegetation of arid regions is required, large scale imagery is appropriate

    Phytoestrogens in Human Pregnancy

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    Background. The hormonal milieu associated with pregnancy has become a focus of interest owing to potential links with the developmental origins of health and disease. Phytoestrogens are hormonally active plant-derived chemicals that may have an impact on human reproductive processes. However, developmental exposure to phytoestrogens has not been well characterized and thus our objective was to quantify phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and lactation. Methods. Women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study during counseling for prenatal genetic information. Women who had an indication for a genetic amniocentesis on the basis of late maternal age were approached for inclusion. They completed an environmental questionnaire; a sample of amniotic fluid was collected for karyotype, blood was collected from women during pregnancy and at birth, from the umbilical cord and breast milk. Samples were tested for the presence of daidzein and genistein by GC Mass Spectroscopy. Findings. Phytoestrogens are commonly found in pregnant women's serum and amniotic fluid during pregnancy. There is a sex difference in the concentrations with higher levels in amniotic fluid containing female fetuses. This difference was not present in maternal serum. Soy ingestion increases amniotic fluid phytoestrogen concentrations in female and male fetuses. The presence and concentrations of phytoestrogens did not differ in relation to common pregnancy complications or preexisting infertility

    String amplitudes in arbitrary dimensions

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    We calculate gravitational dressed tachyon correlators in non critcal dimensions. The 2D gravity part of our theory is constrained to constant curvature. Then scaling dimensions of gravitational dressed vertex operators are equal to their bare conformal dimensions. Considering the model as d+2 dimensional critical string we calculate poles of generalized Shapiro-Virasoro amplitudes.Comment: 14 page

    Screening and surveillance CT abdomen/pelvis for metastases in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity

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    Objectives The clinical utility of routine cross sectional imaging of the abdomen and pelvis in the screening and surveillance of patients with primary soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremities for metastatic disease is controversial, based on its questionable yield paired with concerns regarding the risks of radiation exposure, cost, and morbidity resulting from false positive findings. Methods Through retrospective review of 140 patients of all ages (mean 53 years; 2 to 88) diagnosed with soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity with a mean follow-up of 33 months (0 to 291), we sought to determine the overall incidence of isolated abdominopelvic metastases, their temporal relationship to chest involvement, the rate of false positives, and to identify disparate rates of metastases based on sarcoma subtype. Results A total of four patients (2.9%) exhibited isolated abdominopelvic metastatic disease during the surveillance period. In all cases of concomitant chest and abdominopelvic disease, chest involvement preceded abominopelvic involvement. There was a significant false positive rate requiring invasive workup. Conclusions In the setting of a relative paucity of evidence concerning a rare disease process and in difference to recently published investigations, we add a clinical cohort not supportive of routine cross sectional imaging of the abdomen and pelvis

    Phycomyces

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    This monographic review on a fungus is not addressed to mycologists. None of the authors has been trained or has otherwise acquired a general proficiency in mycology. They are motivated by a common interest in the performances of signal handling exhibited by the sense organs of all organisms and by the desire to attack these as yet totally obscure aspects of molecular biology by the study of a microorganism with certain desirable properties. The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces is a gigantic, single-celled, erect, cylindrical, aerial hypha. It is sensitive to at least four distinct stimuli: light, gravity, stretch, and some unknown stimulus by which it avoids solid objects. These stimuli control a common output, the growth rate, producing either temporal changes in growth rate or tropic responses. We are interested in the output because it gives us information about the reception of the various signals. In the absence of external stimuli, the growth rate is controlled by internal signals keeping the network of biochemical processes in balance. The external stimuli interact with the internal signals. We wish to inquire into the early steps of this interaction. For light, for instance, the cell must have a receptor pigment as the first mediator. What kind of a molecule is this pigment? Which organelle contains it? What chemical reaction happens after a light quantum has been absorbed? And how is the information introduced by this primary photochemical event amplified in a controlled manner and processed in the next step? How do a few quanta or a few molecules trigger macroscopic responses? Will we find ourselves confronted with devices wholly distinct from anything now known in biology
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