467 research outputs found

    Reasonable Accommodations on the Bar Exam: Leveling the Playing Field or Providing an Unfair Advantage?

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    If you ask law students what they think about examination accommodations provided to students with disabilities, including learning disabilities, most students will tell you that it is unfair that some students get more time to take an examination. The misconception that accommodations provide an unfair advantage may stem from the fact that not all students understand the Americans with Disabilities Act ( ADA ), its purpose, and the reasons why individuals receive such accommodations. In fact, the ADA has applications beyond the employment context. Specifically, the ADA ensures that students with disabilities who graduate from medical school, law school, and other professional programs cannot be discriminated against in their educational programs and are entitled to nondiscrimination and reasonable accommodation in the licensing process

    CIVIL RIGHTS LAW—INCLUSION OF EMOTIONAL SUPPORT ANIMALS AS SERVICE ANIMALS UNDER THE ADA: CREATING THE RIGHT TO USE DOGS TO ASSIST PEOPLE LIVING WITH MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES

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    The use of emotional support animals to alleviate or mitigate symptoms associated with mental health issues has been a topic of debate since its inception. On one hand, there is the community of people who have expressed a need to use support animals to help them to participate in society, including while traveling by airplane. On the other hand, the Department of Transportation has had to assess whether allowing support animals on airplanes would pose a direct threat to the safety or health of others. In most contexts, support animals are not treated as service animals, so therein lies substantial confusion. Broadening the Americans with Disabilities Act’s definition of service animal to include emotional support animals will have both positive and negative consequences. By expanding and clarifying the language, our society will benefit by breaking the stigma of mental illness. Nonetheless, there are risks that come with this positive change that will be worth it in the end. These disability regulations need to be updated in a way to provide clarity for all Americans. By carefully crafting the definition of an emotional support animal around the robust fraud mechanisms outlined in this article, people with mental health disabilities can have the ADA’s promises fulfilled and be fully integrated into society while still protecting the interests of businesses and others

    Comparison of Aerobic Training Methods on V02 Max, Body Composition and Anaerobic Power.

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    Recent research has utilized intensity as a primary means to define training methods for improving aerobic capacity (VO2 max). Alternative ways of classifying training techniques must be examined to elucidate optimal practices for aerobic capacity enhancement. PURPOSE: To investigate the potential impact of various aerobic training methods on V02, body composition and anaerobic power. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy male & female subjects (18-30yrs) participated in an equated volume supervised running workout for six weeks utilizing two alternate training methods. Group one (N = 17, 21 ± 3 yr) participated in Interval Training Distance (ITD) and group two (N = 17, 21 ± 3 yr) participated in Long Slow Distance (LSD). All subjects participated in a familiarity session (FAM), a Pre-Test (T1) and a Post-Test (T2) . Each testing session consisted of a V02 Max, a 30 second Wingate and body composition assessment. Data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Significance was set at p \u3c 0.05 and adopted throughout. RESULTS: The ITD and LSD groups experienced significant increases (p \u3c 0 .001) in VO2 max, with 9.05% (4.19 ± 4.15 ml/kg/min) and 3.18% (1.39 ± 3.67 ml/kg/min) increases respectively. A significant interaction (p \u3c 0.05) in VO2 max occurred between groups, as the ITD group displayed a 302% greater increase when compared to the LSD group. Body fat percentage significantly decreased (p \u3c 0.01) in the ITD (1.08 ± 1.90%) and LSD (1.55 ± 3.21%) groups, while a significant reduction (p \u3c 0.05) in total body weight was also observed. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the ITD training method has a greater impact on aerobic capacity than LSD training method. However, both ITD and LSD training methods had a significant impact on aerobic capacity, body weight, and body composition

    Supporting the learning of deaf students in higher education: a case study at Sheffield Hallam University

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    This article is an examination of the issues surrounding support for the learning of deaf students in higher education (HE). There are an increasing number of deaf students attending HE institutes, and as such provision of support mechanisms for these students is not only necessary but essential. Deaf students are similar to their hearing peers, in that they will approach their learning and require differing levels of support dependant upon the individual. They will, however, require a different kind of support, which can be technical or human resource based. This article examines the issues that surround supporting deaf students in HE with use of a case study of provision at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), during the academic year 1994-95. It is evident that by considering the needs of deaf students and making changes to our teaching practices that all students can benefit

    Effects of repeated binge intake of the pyrovalerone cathinone derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone on prefrontal cytokine levels in rats – a preliminary study

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    Drugs of abuse activate neuroimmune signaling in addiction-related regions of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) which mediates executive control, attention, and behavioral inhibition. Traditional psychostimulants including methamphetamine and cocaine are known to induce PFC inflammation, yet the effects of synthetic cathinone derivatives are largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the ability of repeated binge-like intake of the pyrovalerone cathinone derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) to alter cytokine profiles in the PFC. Male and female rats were allowed to intravenously self-administer MDPV (0.05 mg/kg/infusion) or saline as a control under conditions of prolonged binge-like access, consisting of three 96 h periods of drug access interspersed with 72 h of forced abstinence. Three weeks following cessation of drug availability, PFC cytokine levels were assessed using antibody arrays. Employing the unsupervised clustering and regression analysis tool CytoMod, a single module of co-signaling cytokines associated with MDPV intake regardless of sex was identified. With regards to specific cytokines, MDPV intake was positively associated with PFC levels of VCAM-1/CD106 and negatively associated with levels of Flt-3 ligand. These findings indicate that prolonged MDPV intake causes changes in PFC cytokine levels that persist into abstinence; however, the functional ramifications of these changes remain to be fully elucidated

    Gardnerella vaginalis promotes group B Streptococcus vaginal colonization, enabling ascending uteroplacental infection in pregnant mice

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    BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus is a common vaginal bacterium and the leading cause of invasive fetoplacental infections. Group B Streptococcus in the vagina can invade through the cervix to cause ascending uteroplacental infections or can be transmitted to the neonate during vaginal delivery. Some studies have found that women with a dysbiotic polymicrobial or Lactobacillus-depleted vaginal microbiota are more likely to harbor group B Streptococcus. Gardnerella vaginalis is often the most abundant bacteria in the vaginas of women with dysbiosis, while being detected at lower levels in most other women, and has been linked with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mouse models of group B Streptococcus and Gardnerella vaginalis colonization have been reported but, to the best of our knowledge, the two have not been studied together. The overarching idea driving this study is that certain members of the dysbiotic vaginal microbiota, such as Gardnerella vaginalis, may directly contribute to the increased rate of group B Streptococcus vaginal colonization observed in women with vaginal dysbiosis. OBJECTIVE: We used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that vaginal exposure to Gardnerella vaginalis may facilitate colonization and/or invasive infection of the upper reproductive tract by group B Streptococcus during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Timed-pregnant mice were generated using an allogeneic mating strategy with BALB/c males and C57Bl/6 females. Dams were vaginally inoculated at gestational day 14 with group B Streptococcus alone (using a 10-fold lower dose than previously reported models) or coinoculated with group B Streptococcus and Gardnerella vaginalis. Bacterial titers were enumerated in vaginal, uterine horn, and placental tissues at gestational day 17. The presence (Fisher exact tests) and levels (Mann-Whitney U tests) of bacterial titers were compared between mono- and coinoculated dams in each compartment. Relative risks were calculated for outcomes that occurred in both groups. Tissue samples were also examined for evidence of pathophysiology. RESULTS: Inoculation of pregnant mice with 10 CONCLUSION: These data suggest that Gardnerella vaginalis vaginal exposure can promote group B Streptococcus vaginal colonization, resulting in a greater likelihood of invasive perinatal group B Streptococcus infections. These findings suggest that future clinical studies should examine whether the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis is a risk factor for group B Streptococcus vaginal colonization in women. Because Gardnerella vaginalis can also be present in women without bacterial vaginosis, these findings may be relevant both inside and outside of the context of vaginal dysbiosis

    School functioning and violent behavior among young adolescents: a contextual analysis

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    This paper examines associations between overall school functioning and the frequency of violent behaviors among young adolescents (ages 10–14). The sample included 16 middle schools participating in an unrelated intervention study (on nutrition) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. A School Functioning Index developed to characterize schools’ overall stability, performance, and demographics was constructed using data from public archives and school administrator surveys. Data on violent behaviors and other variables were collected in student surveys in fall 1998 and spring 1999. We used multilevel modeling to assess the effect of school functioning on violent behavior after adjusting for known individual-level covariates of violent behaviors. We found an interaction between school functioning (group-level variable) and expectations for future education (individual-level variable). Among students who reported expectations of completing a college degree (71% of the sample), positive school functioning was negatively associated with violent behaviors. Among students that reported expectations of completing less than a college degree, no association was found between school functioning and violent behaviors. These results support earlier work suggesting that objectively measured school characteristics are associated with students’ violent behaviors even after accounting for individual-level factors and also identify a subgroup of students for whom school detachment may be an issue

    Low-dose inoculation of Escherichia coli achieves robust vaginal colonization and results in ascending infection accompanied by severe uterine inflammation in mice

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    Escherichia coli infection of the female reproductive tract is a significant cause of disease in humans and animals, but simple animal models are lacking. Here we report that vaginal inoculation of uropathogenic E. coli strains UTI89 and CFT073 in non-pregnant, estrogen-treated mice resulted in robust colonization of the vagina and uterine horns, whereas titers of the lab strain MG1655 were significantly lower. Non-estrogenized mice also became colonized, but there was more variation in titers. A dose of 104 colony-forming units (CFU) UTI89 was sufficient to result in colonization in all estrogenized mice, and we also observed bacterial transfer between inoculated and uninoculated estrogenized cage mates. UTI89 infection led to inflammation and leukocyte infiltration into the uterine horns as evidenced by tissue histology. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that neutrophil, monocyte and eosinophil populations were significantly increased in infected uterine horns. This model is a simple way to study host-pathogen interactions in E. coli vaginal colonization and uterine infection. There are immediate implications for investigators studying urinary tract infection using mouse models, as few E. coli are required to achieve reproductive colonization, resulting in an additional, underappreciated mucosal reservoir

    Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

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    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination

    Forage Data Hub – A Platform for Sharing Valuable Datasets for Resilience

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    In accord with the necessity to enhance ecosystem services and productivity in food systems, is the increase of data availability at multiple scales and over time. To help meet this need, we discuss the development of a National Forage Data Hub which will act as a platform to curate, share, and analyze data pertaining to forage systems. This centralized hub will leverage existing datasets by bridging multiple sources including forage crop—soil, water, and nutrient availability—yield (animal and crop) potential (and gaps)— climate—management systems at high spatial and temporal resolution enabling system interaction assessments through next-generation analytics. This novel approach to existing datasets will integrate Big Data at the soilwater- plant-animal-climate nexus to advance data storage technology systems for multiple trophic-level research projects
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