227 research outputs found

    Protocolo de perícia em bem-estar animal para diagnóstico de maus-tratos contra animais de companhia

    Get PDF
    Animal welfare expert reports may support court decisions when animal abuse or maltreatment is suspected. The objective of this work is to adapt animal welfare assessment protocols to identify companion animal abuse. The proposed protocol includes four indicator categories: nutritional, comfort, health and behavioral. To reach the overall conclusion regarding the situation evaluated, the final decisions for each group of indicators, classified as inadequate, regular and adequate, must be integrated into a single result, which will be the final welfare degree. This protocol employs a simple integration method, based on thresholds for inclusion in each of the five animal welfare degrees reported as overall conclusion for the assessment: very low, low, regular, high or very high welfare. Low and very low degrees are considered non-acceptable and are reported as abuse or maltreatment. Regular welfare is considered acceptable if corrective measures are assured. High and very high degrees are considered desirable for animal welfare. The protocol allows differentiation of animal welfare status to better decide whether an animal is under abuse, maltreatment or negligence. We hope that the refinement of the recognition of crimes against animals, especially considering cases where no physical lesion is present, coupled with a standardized protocol will improve perception of animal suffering, facilitate the field work of those involved in this type of investigation, and offer a contribution to the improvement of animal welfare in our society through proper action and crime reduction.¬†As decis√Ķes judiciais sobre casos de maus-tratos contra animais podem ser subsidiadas por laudos de peritos em bem-estar animal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi adaptar protocolos de diagn√≥stico de bem-estar animal para a identifica√ß√£o de maus-tratos contra animais de companhia. O protocolo √© composto por quatro conjuntos de indicadores: nutricionais, de conforto, sanit√°rios e comportamentais, os quais devem ser classificados em inadequados, regulares e adequados. As decis√Ķes finais para cada conjunto de indicadores devem ser integradas em um √ļnico resultado, o qual ser√° o grau final de bem-estar. O protocolo utiliza uma forma de integra√ß√£o simplificada, baseada em limites para a inclus√£o em cada um dos cinco graus de bem-estar, descritos como: muito baixo, baixo, regular, alto e muito alto. Graus de bem-estar baixo e muito baixo s√£o considerados inaceit√°veis e devem ser descritos como maus-tratos. Grau de bem-estar regular √© considerado aceit√°vel se medidas corretivas forem asseguradas. Graus de bem-estar alto e muito alto s√£o considerados desej√°veis para o bem-estar animal. O protocolo permite a diferencia√ß√£o do grau de bem-estar em escala compat√≠vel para a decis√£o em rela√ß√£o √† ocorr√™ncia de maus-tratos. N√≥s esperamos que o refinamento das formas de identifica√ß√£o de crimes contra animais, especialmente nos casos nos quais n√£o existem les√Ķes f√≠sicas, juntamente com um protocolo padronizado, possam aprimorar a percep√ß√£o do sofrimento animal, al√©m de facilitar o trabalho de campo das pessoas envolvidas nestas investiga√ß√Ķes, oferecendo assim uma contribui√ß√£o para incrementar o bem-estar animal, por meio de a√ß√Ķes adequadas e de redu√ß√£o da criminalidade.

    Performance of formulae based estimates of glomerular filtration rate for carboplatin dosing in stage 1 seminoma

    Get PDF
    <b>Background:</b> Single cycle carboplatin, dosed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is standard adjuvant therapy for stage 1 seminoma. Accurate measurement of GFR is essential for correct dosing. Isotopic methods remain the gold standard for the determination of GFR. Formulae to estimate GFR have improved the assessment of renal function in non-oncological settings. We assessed the utility of these formulae for carboplatin dosing.<p></p> <b>Methods:</b> We studied consecutive subjects receiving adjuvant carboplatin for stage 1 seminoma at our institution between 2007 and 2012. Subjects underwent 51Cr-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) measurement of GFR with carboplatin dose calculated using the Calvert formula. Theoretical carboplatin doses were calculated from estimated GFR using Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI), Management of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft‚ÄďGault (CG) formulae with additional correction for actual body surface area (BSA). Carboplatin doses calculated by formulae were compared with dose calculated by isotopic GFR; a difference <10% was considered acceptable.<p></p> <b>Results:</b> 115 patients were identified. Mean isotopic GFR was 96.9 ml/min/1.73 m2. CG and CKD-EPI tended to overestimate GFR whereas MDRD tended to underestimate GFR. The CKD-EPI formula had greatest accuracy. The CKD-EPI formula, corrected for actual BSA, performed best; 45.9% of patients received within 10% of correct carboplatin dose. Patients predicted as underdosed (13.5%) by CKD-EPI were more likely to be obese (p = 0.013); there were no predictors of the 40.5% receiving an excess dose.<p></p> <b>Conclusions:</b> Our data support further evaluation of the CKD-EPI formula in this patient population but clinically significant variances in carboplatin dosing occur using non-isotopic methods of GFR estimation. Isotopic determination of GFR should remain the recommended standard for carboplatin dosing when accuracy is essential.<p></p&gt

    Estudo das curvas de lactação de vacas da raça holandesa no estado do Parana

    Get PDF
    Resumo: Dados provenientes do Programa de An√°lise de Rebanhos Leiteiros do Paran√°, da Associa√ß√£o Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos Ra√ßa Holandesa (Conv√™nio APCBRH/UFPR/Universidade McGill/CIDA), do per√≠odo de janeiro de 1992 a julho de 1995, compostos de 27029 lacta√ß√Ķes encerradas distribu√≠das em 422 rebanhos, foram estudados para o estabelecimento das curvas de lacta√ß√£o das vacas de ra√ßa holandesa do estado do Paran√°, com o objetivo da utiliza√ß√£o destas curvas como instrumento de manejo. As curvas de lacta√ß√£o foram produzidas de acordo com a ordem de lacta√ß√£o e com o n√≠vel de produ√ß√£o do rebanho ao qual os animais pertencem. O formato das curvas de lacta√ß√£o do estado do Paran√° apresenta-se muito similar √†quele das curvas descritas para o nordeste dos Estados Unidos. O pico de produ√ß√£o aumenta (P<0,01) √† medida que aumentam a ordem de lacta√ß√£o e o n√≠vel de produ√ß√£o do rebanho. O decl√≠nio di√°rio da produ√ß√£o de leite, expresso como persist√™ncia baseada na fase inclina√ß√£o da curvas, aumenta (P<0,01) √† medida que aumenta o n√≠vel de produ√ß√£o do rebanho, para as vacas de segunda e terceira ou mais lacta√ß√Ķes. As vacas de primeira lacta√ß√£o n√£o mostram uma tend√™ncia clara de acordo com os n√≠veis de produ√ß√£o do rebanho, sendo poss√≠vel a ado√ß√£o de um valor √ļnico de decl√≠nio di√°rio de 0,026 kg de leite por dia. Tamb√©m foram produzidas as persist√™ncias porcentuais mensais, devido sua utilidade a n√≠vel de campo. As curvas de lacta√ß√£o obtidas para o estado do Paran√°, assim como suas caracter√≠sticas de pico e persist√™ncia, aplicam-se √† utiliza√ß√£o a n√≠vel de campo para apoiar o manejo de rebanhos leiteiros e servem como base para o estudo de modelos matem√°ticos que permitam a produ√ß√£o de fatores de corre√ß√£o para o c√°lculo de produ√ß√Ķes estimadas para lacta√ß√Ķes incompletas, assim como para o estudo dos diferentes fatores que influenciam o formato das curvas de lacta√ß√£o no estado do Paran√°

    History teaching, africanities and disruption of stereotypes in anti-racist teacher training

    Get PDF
    O artigo tematiza impactos do estudo das Africanidades na forma√ß√£o continuada de docentes, no Curso de Aperfei√ßoamento Uniafro/UFRGS, que atuam na educa√ß√£o infantil e nos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental. Compartilha considera√ß√Ķes de estudo em andamento, na √°rea da pesquisa em Educa√ß√£o, articuladas no objetivo de compreender a implementa√ß√£o do ensino de hist√≥ria afro-brasileira como a√ß√£o afirmativa no campo do curr√≠culo. Os resultados parciais demonstram a exist√™ncia de processos de constru√ß√£o de estereotipias e de desestabiliza√ß√£o de subjetividades docentes, na consolida√ß√£o da Educa√ß√£o das Rela√ß√Ķes √Čtnico-Raciais nos espa√ßos escolares. S√£o refer√™ncias anal√≠ticas as pensadoras Azoilda Loretto da Trindade, Nilma Lino Gomes e Petronilha Beatriz Gon√ßalves e SilvaThe article discusses the impacts of the study of Africanities in the continuing education of teachers, in the Uniafro / UFRGS Improvement Course, who work in early childhood education and in the early years of elementary school. It shares ongoing study considerations in the area of research in Education, articulated with the aim of understanding the implementation of Afro-Brazilian history teaching as an affirmative curricular action. The partial results demonstrate the existence of construction processes of stereotypes and destabilization of teaching subjectivities, in the consolidation of the Education of Ethnic-Racial Relations in school spaces. Analytical references are the thinkers Azoilda Loretto da Trindade, Nilma Lino Gomes and Petronilha Beatriz Gon√ßalves e Silv

    An√°lise retrospectiva de den√ļncias de maus-tratos contra animais na regi√£o de Curitiba, Estado do Paran√°, utilizando crit√©rios de bem-estar animal

    Get PDF
    The human-animal relationship should be positive; however, negative interactions are frequently registered, some of which can be found as reports of incidents of animal abuse. ¬†The aim of this study was to survey the history of complaints of animal abuse recorded in the Animal Protection Society of Campo Largo and Curitiba and in the Animal Defense and Protection Network of Curitiba, Paran√°, and to analyze the relevance of veterinary action in such cases. The data collected were animal species involved, description of complaints and relevant information to classify them according to the causes and the Five Freedoms. Of the allegations, 82.9% involved dogs. The most common causes were abandonment (16.2%), failure to provide food and water (15.7%), death (14.7%) and lack of veterinary care (13.5%). Most of the cases referred to the freedom from pain, injury and disease, and the freedom from hunger and thirst, although the technical evaluation has revealed a frequent impact on psychological freedom. The results suggest that the collaboration of a professional specialized in animal welfare can enhance the deliberations in cases of suspected animal abuse.A rela√ß√£o entre seres humanos e animais deve ser positiva. No entanto, intera√ß√Ķes negativas tamb√©m t√™m sido descritas, como os relatos de ocorr√™ncias de maus-tratos contra animais. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o perfil de den√ļncias de maus-tratos contra animais registradas nas Sociedades Protetoras dos Animais de Campo Largo e de Curitiba e na Rede de Defesa e Prote√ß√£o Animal de Curitiba, e analisar a pertin√™ncia da a√ß√£o de profissionais capacitados em tais processos. Os elementos apurados foram esp√©cies animais envolvidas e descri√ß√£o das den√ļncias a fim de coletar as informa√ß√Ķes pertinentes e classific√°-las de acordo com as causas e com as Cinco Liberdades. Das den√ļncias, 82,9% envolveram c√£es. As causas mais comuns foram abandono (16,2%), n√£o fornecimento de alimento e √°gua (15,7%), morte (14,7%) e aus√™ncia de atendimento veterin√°rio (13,5%). A maioria das ocorr√™ncias fez refer√™ncia √†s liberdades sanit√°ria (71,8%) e nutricional (28,2%), embora a avalia√ß√£o t√©cnica tenha revelado o comprometimento comum da liberdade psicol√≥gica (93,5%). Os resultados sugerem que a colabora√ß√£o de profissional capacitado em bem-estar animal pode subsidiar o aprimoramento das delibera√ß√Ķes em casos de suspeita de maus-tratos aos animais

    Alternativas ao uso de animais de laboratório no Brasil

    Get PDF
    Animais de laborat√≥rio s√£o amplamente utilizados no Brasil e em outros pa√≠ses, por√©m, tal situa√ß√£o tem gerado intensas discuss√Ķes. Um marco importante para o bem-estar de animais de laborat√≥rio foi a publica√ß√£o do conceito dos 3Rs ‚Äď Replacement, Reduction e Refinement ‚Äď, que significa Substitui√ß√£o de animais, Redu√ß√£o do n√ļmero de animais e Refinamento dos procedimentos envolvendo animais; o primeiro R √© prefer√≠vel em rela√ß√£o aos demais, pois representa a substitui√ß√£o de animais vivos por m√©todos alternativos. Em fun√ß√£o da preocupa√ß√£o por parte da sociedade e da necessidade de avan√ßos na √°rea de bem-estar de animais de laborat√≥rio, o governo brasileiro tem mostrado iniciativas importantes, a exemplo da aprova√ß√£o da Lei Arouca que regulamenta a cria√ß√£o e a utiliza√ß√£o de animais para ensino, testes e pesquisa no pa√≠s. O Brasil √© importante em termos de n√ļmeros de animais de laborat√≥rio utilizados; em determinadas situa√ß√Ķes os procedimentos podem ser substitu√≠dos por m√©todos alternativos. Por exemplo, para o diagn√≥stico da raiva, a inocula√ß√£o intracerebral de material suspeito em camundongos pode ser substitu√≠da por cultivo celular com alto grau de confian√ßa. Apesar da disponibilidade de m√©todos alternativos aceitos internacionalmente, tais recursos n√£o s√£o utilizados por muitos laborat√≥rios brasileiros, portanto √© importante que se entendam quais as barreiras que impedem a substitui√ß√£o de animais para que se possa diminuir o sofrimento animal envolvido. Assim, oportunidades para a utiliza√ß√£o de alternativas existem, fato que colaborou para a cria√ß√£o do Centro Brasileiro de Valida√ß√£o de M√©todos Alternativos (BraCVAM) e da Rede Nacional de M√©todos Alternativos (RENAMA). Al√©m da cria√ß√£o de leis espec√≠ficas e √≥rg√£os como a RENAMA e o BraCVAM, tamb√©m se observa a inclus√£o de discuss√Ķes relacionadas ao bem-estar animal e m√©todos alternativos em eventos cient√≠ficos brasileiros; tais iniciativas demonstram que o pa√≠s est√° gradativamente avan√ßando no campo do bem-estar de animais de laborat√≥rio

    Transfer of a major qtl for resistance to fusarium head blight from Thinopyrum elongatum onto durum wheat 7al chromosome arm and its pyramiding with other useful genes from Th. ponticum

    Get PDF
    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), also called scab, a major wheat disease worldwide, has in recent years become a threat also in uncommon cultivation areas of bread and durum wheat. The lack of efficient and durable sources of resistance within adapted durum wheat germplasm is particularly alarming. In fact, durum wheat is used almost exclusively for human consumption, and Fusarium attacks, besides causing severe yield losses, pose a high risk of kernel contamination with health-dangerous mycotoxins, notably deoxynivalenol (DON). To cope with this scenario, looking outside of the primary genepool and exploring exotic variability harboured within related Triticeae species, appears as a worth strategy. We recently mapped an exceptionally effective QTL for FHB resistance (provisional designation Fhb-7EL) onto the telomeric portion of the 7EL chromosome arm of diploid Thinopyrum elongatum, and pyramided it with other useful genes from the 7el1L arm of decaploid Th. ponticum (Lr19, Yp, yield related traits) onto the 7DL arm of bread wheat- Thinopyrum recombinant lines (Ceoloni et al. TAG, in press). Two such FHB resistant recombinants, having distal 70% of their 7DL replaced by chromatin of the two Thinopyrum species in slightly different relative proportions, were crossed with two previously developed durum wheat- Th. ponticum recombinants, having 23% and 28% of their 7AL arm replaced by 7el1L chromatin, respectively. In the shared 7el1L region between the bread wheat (6x) and durum wheat (4x) parental recombinant types, including in all cases the Lr19 gene, homologous pairing evidently occurred with high frequency (over 70%), as proved by GISH-based analysis of meiotic pairing of 5x F1\u2019s. As a result, new 7EL-7el1L recombinant types could be isolated in the BC1 generation to durum wheat. Selection for desired recombinants, i.e. those involving chromosome 7A and with a total Thinopyrum spp. (7EL+7el1L) chromatin not exceeding the 28% of the arm, was carried out by a panel of user-friendly PCR-based markers. To accelerate reduction of chromosome number to the euploid 2n=28, in vitro culture of BC2 embryos was carried out. Selected heterozygous recombinant plants, most of them having reached a stable chromosomal condition, were selfed and in the BC2F2 progeny homozygous genotypes were isolated. The latter were challenged by Fusarium graminearum spike inoculation, to verify the efficacy of the Fhb-7EL QTL once inserted into a durum wheat background. Compared to highly susceptible control plants, inoculation outcomes confirmed what previously observed at the bread wheat level, with remarkable reduction of disease severity, averaging over 90%, invariably associated with presence of the Fhb-7EL QTL. Thus, what is considered to be by far the most effective resistance to FHB available, is now readily exploitable in breeding to provide protection against this threatening disease, hence substantially enhancing food security and safety of the bread and durum wheat crop, in Italy and worldwide

    COMPASSIONATE CONSERVATION: CONCEPT AND APPLICATIONS

    Get PDF
    ABSTRACTThe growth of urban areas, the unfamiliarity of people with wildlife, the spread of cities into wilderness and the loss of natural habitats cause animals and humans to live in close proximity in and around urban areas. This situation imposes many challenges to both parties and occasionally generates conflicts. When managing conflict situations, the traditional approach considers almost exclusively conservation, with little or no regard for animal welfare. This work aimed to discuss the concept of compassionate conservation and its application in practice by addressing three relevant wildlife conservation issues. The compassionate conservation approach unites conservation and animal welfare in an effort for more enlightened decision making and, consequently, improvement in animal and human welfare and environment aspects. In an overview of some wildlife management methods, the approaches are compared regarding strengths and weaknesses on animal welfare and conservation
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore