1,801 research outputs found

    Bargaining and Influence in Conflict Situations

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    [Excerpt] This chapter examines bargaining as an influence process through which actors attempt to resolve a social conflict. Conflict occurs when two or more interdependent actors have incompatible preferences and perceive or anticipate resistance from each other (Blalock 1989; Kriesberg 1982). Bargaining is a basic form of goal-directed action that involves both intentions to influence and efforts by each actor to carry out these intentions. Tactics are verbal and/or nonverbal actions designed to maneuver oneself into a favorable position vis-a-vis another or to reach some accommodation. Our treatment of bargaining subsumes the concept of negotiation (see Morley and Stephenson 1977). This chapter is organized around a conceptual framework that distinguishes basic types of bargaining contexts. We begin by introducing the framework and then present an overview of and analyze theoretical and empirical work on each type of bargaining context

    Metatheory and Friendly Competition in Theory Growth: The Case of Power Processes in Bargaining

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    [Excerpt] This paper analyzes the theoretical development taking place in a program of research on power processes in bargaining (see Bacharach and Lawler 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1981b; Lawler and Bacharach 1976, 1979, 1987; Lawler, Ford, and Blegen 1988; Lawler and Yoon 1990; Lawler 1986, 1992). The theoretical program takes as its starting point a situation where individuals, groups, organizations, or even societies with conflicting interests voluntarily enter into explicit bargaining. Explicit (as opposed to tacit) bargaining assumes the mutual acknowledgment of negotiations, conflicting issues along which compromise is possible, and open lines of communication through which parties can exchange offers and counteroffers in an attempt to resolve the issues that divide them (Schelling 1960; Bacharach and Lawler 1980; Boyle and Lawler 1991). The scope of this theoretical research program assumes further that the parties have a power capability, that they use this power tactically in an effort to achieve desired outcomes, and that they strive for a favorable position during the bargaining process

    The Clean Air Act and Its Impact on Ground Level Ozone Pollution Levels in Los Angeles, California

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    Ozone (O3) occurs as a photochemically produced pollutant in the troposphere and its emission and concentration is regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970. The Los Angeles area is an example of how O3 can be a public health hazard and taint a city’s aesthetics and quality of life through photochemical smog. This study was conducted to observe the overall effectiveness of the CAA. I explored daily O3 concentrations from 1980 to the present at three air quality monitoring stations in LA from the AirData database of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National O3 standards were only exceeded twice at one station throughout the study period. While the average O3 concentrations have been well below the national standards since 1980, they have remained relatively constant, while variance about these averages has steadily declined, indicating a positive impact on O3 concentrations in the LA metropolitan area

    Literary correspondences: Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Mme de Genlis

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    Although Bernardin’s correspondence spans most of his adult life and involves a wide range of correspondents and subject matter, there is a marked increase in the number of correspondents and frequency of correspondence from the time he begins to enjoy real literary success. Indeed, the relationship between the reading and writing of letters and the writing and reading of Bernardin’s published works is a close and multi-faceted one. The focus for this article is the correspondence between Bernardin and Mme de Genlis, one of the most significant literary figures in Bernardin’s correspondence network. Their correspondence casts light on Bernardin’s place in late eighteenth-century literary and cultural life and his developing identity as an author. Bernardin’s correspondence with Mme de Genlis helps him to deal with practical issues surrounding the publication of his works, and to explore the moral and ethical implications of authorship; but it also reveals the difficulties inherent in the act of correspondence itself

    The Clean Air Act and Its Impact on Ground Level Ozone Pollution Levels in Los Angeles, California

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    Ozone (O3) occurs naturally as a protective, ultraviolet radiation-shielding “Ozone Layer” in the Stratosphere and as a photochemically produced pollutant in the Troposphere. The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970 regulates the emission and concentration of O3 and five other atmospheric pollutants. Since the signing of the CAA, the ongoing question has been whether or not the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and regulatory policies have had an effect on decreasing O3 concentration. The Los Angeles metropolitan area is a prime example of how O3 can be a public health hazard, and taint a city’s aesthetics and quality of life through photochemical smog. I chose LA for this study in attempt to contribute to the conversation regarding the effectiveness of the CAA. I explored daily maximum O3 concentrations from 1980 to the present of three air quality monitoring stations in metropolitan LA from the AirData database of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Various statistical metrics of this dataset were compared to the established NAAQS during this period. The NAAQS themselves were only exceeded twice at one station throughout the data available. While the average O3 concentrations have been well below the NAAQS during this period, they have remained relatively constant. In contrast, variance about these averages have been steadily declining. It can be concluded that the CAA has had a positive impact on O3 concentration from this more controlled, predictable range. Yet, the fight against air pollution will not be over until the concentration falls to natural levels

    Leading from the front? Increasing Community Participation in a Just Transition to Net Zero in the North-East of Scotland

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    Acknowledgements We would like to thank our funder the Scottish University Insight Institute for funding and supporting this project. We would also like to thank our project partners NESCAN Hub and Power Circle and the community and civil society groups, local stakeholders and individuals who joined us at our events.Publisher PD

    Sensory properties of supercritical CO2 fractions extracted from Magnum hop essential oil

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    Hop oil fractions with unique sensory characteristics can be extracted from hop essential oil using green solvents such as supercritical (sc) CO2. These extracts meet clean label requirements and can be used to manage fluctuations in volatile composition caused by global warming. A sensory descriptive analysis approach was applied to assess the sensory profiles of Magnum hop oil and five scCO2 fractions. Ten sensory panellists were trained and used to establish an attribute lexicon. All samples, a control, and an experimental replicate were evaluated at 800 μg/L in ethanol (4% abv) in triplicate. Data were analysed by three‐factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (HSD). Volatile compounds were determined using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). Relationships between the volatile compounds and sensory profiles were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. In contrast to the majority of fractions, the total oil (the most complex sample) and the sesquiterpene fraction (as the largest chemical group in the total oil) were not described by any key sensory attributes. This illustrates the advantage of hop oil fractionation to pull out specific sensory characteristics. The β‐myrcene in the myrcene fraction induced an intense ‘crushed grass, sap’ aroma while the fractions containing several geranyl and methyl esters and ketones were characterised by fruity‐ and floral‐type aroma and flavour attributes. Interestingly, the most polar fraction comprising of terpene alcohols delivered a complex sensory experience by adding sweetness. Moreover, a trigeminal ‘peppery tingling’ sensation was detected, which is likely to be caused by sensory interactions

    Role of CD28 Signaling in Mice on Homeostatic Reconstitution on T Cells following Lymphodepletion

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    Emory University will soon commence a Phase 2 clinical trial testing the efficacy of Lulizumab, a drug that selectively targets CD28 signaling thereby preventing T cell activation. Preclinical studies have shown this drug to be superior to calcineurin inhibitors in reducing kidney transplant rejection rates. Patients will be T cell depleted (TCD), rendering them lymphopenic at the time of transplant. It is unclear what effect CD28 dAb treatment will have on T cell phenotypes following homeostatic reconstitution (HR) in these patients. Previous studies have shown that HR causes increased differentiation of naïve T cells into memory cells and to premature senescence. We hypothesized that blocking CD28 signaling in T cells could prevent this differentiation and change in phenotype. We investigated this question using a murine model of TCD and skin transplantation. Four groups of mice (n = 16): no treatment control, TCD alone, CD28 dAb alone, and both TCD and CD28 dAb were established. Mice were sacrificed at 6 weeks post-grafting, and blood and tissues were collected for flow cytometric analysis. Using traditional flow cytometry analysis, we found that treating TCD mice with CD28 dAb controlled HR-induced differentiation and senescence of CD4+ T cells. These results were consistent in across the blood, lung, and spleen, and were also confirmed using an unsupervised machine-learning approach. As it is currently believed that memory T cells are responsible for costimulatory blockade resistant rejection, we believe further analysis could help determine the specific mechanism behind costimulatory blockade resistant rejection and therefore help reduce kidney transplant rejection rates

    Comparing and Explaining Public Acceptance Of Ecological Forestry in Tasmania and the U.S. Pacific Northwest

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    Major controversies have erupted in recent years about extensive and intensive timber harvesting programs in Tasmania and the U.S. Pacific Northwest. These conflicts have centered on ecological impacts and both regions have responded by adopting similar programs of “ecological forestry.” Both programs emphasize the retention of varying amounts of trees in aggregated or dispersed patterns within harvests, and seek to “life boat” mature-forest habitat functions across some harvest prescriptions. Are these programs garnering similar public acceptance? Do people with similar ideologies judge the acceptability of forests similarly in both regions? Do perceptions differ between regions due to differences in ecological, cultural or economic conditions? Similar public perception surveys within each region investigated the acceptance of harvest prescriptions that matched closely between regions. In both surveys, images of the appearance of harvests were presented to respondents with expert-derived information about the magnitude of similar ecological, safety and economic impacts. Respondents rated the acceptability of each prescription. Respondents’ environmental attitudes were classified as forest protectionist, productionist or non-aligned within each region. Statistical and graphical analyses compared the patterns and sources of comparable acceptability judgments between the regions.

Results/Conclusions
Ideologically similar samples of respondents in both regions exhibited comparable patterns of increasing mean acceptability ratings with increasing tree retention levels for all harvest prescriptions, except 30-40% dispersed retention harvests. These comparable respondent samples also exhibited similar correlations between acceptability ratings and levels of harvest impacts by category, exhibiting the same associations between ideologies and preferred impacts across regions. Three exceptions showed that Tasmanians exhibited a greater range of sensitivity for certain impact categories: (1) ground habitat impacts, likely attributable to greater retention of down wood in all Pacific Northwest prescriptions, versus burning most down wood in some Tasmanian prescriptions for regeneration of commercial species; (2) logger safety, likely attributable to greater differences in actual safety levels across the Tasmanian prescriptions; and (3) wildfire risk, likely because the affected Pacific Northwest region has few historical wildfires. Utility functions were estimated for each region’s respondents and applied to the opposite region’s forests. This confirmed that both regions’ respondents would agree about the lower acceptability of Tasmanian 30-40% dispersed retention harvests, likely because Tasmanians retain only a percent of commercial species while felling all other trees, versus Americans’ retention of a percent of all tree types, retaining more trees and more ecosystem components
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