940 research outputs found

    Instabilities and the null energy condition

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    We show that violation of the null energy condition implies instability in a broad class of models, including classical gauge theories with scalar and fermionic matter as well as any perfect fluid. When applied to the dark energy, our results imply that w=p/ρw = p / \rho is unlikely to be less than -1.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure, revtex, presentation improved, minor change

    Droplet actuation induced by coalescence: experimental evidences and phenomenological modeling

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    This paper considers the interaction between two droplets placed on a substrate in immediate vicinity. We show here that when the two droplets are of different fluids and especially when one of the droplet is highly volatile, a wealth of fascinating phenomena can be observed. In particular, the interaction may result in the actuation of the droplet system, i.e. its displacement over a finite length. In order to control this displacement, we consider droplets confined on a hydrophilic stripe created by plasma-treating a PDMS substrate. This controlled actuation opens up unexplored opportunities in the field of microfluidics. In order to explain the observed actuation phenomenon, we propose a simple phenomenological model based on Newton's second law and a simple balance between the driving force arising from surface energy gradients and the viscous resistive force. This simple model is able to reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively the observed droplet dynamics

    Tracking Curvaton(s)?

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    The ratio of the curvaton energy density to that of the dominant component of the background sources may be constant during a significant period in the evolution of the Universe. The possibility of having tracking curvatons, whose decay occurs prior to the nucleosynthesis epoch, is studied. It is argued that the tracking curvaton dynamics is disfavoured since the value of the curvature perturbations prior to curvaton decay is smaller than the value required by observations. It is also argued, in a related context, that the minimal inflationary curvature scale compatible with the curvaton paradigm may be lowered in the case of low-scale quintessential inflation.Comment: 20 pages, 4figure

    Noninteracting dark matter

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    Since an acceptable dark matter candidate may interact only weakly with ordinary matter and radiation, it is of interest to consider the limiting case where the dark matter interacts only with gravity and itself, the matter originating by the gravitational particle production at the end of inflation. We use the bounds on the present dark mass density and the measured large-scale fluctuations in the thermal cosmic background radiation to constrain the two parameters in a self-interaction potential that is a sum of quadratic and quartic terms in a single scalar dark matter field that is minimally coupled to gravity. In quintessential inflation, where the temperature at the end of inflation is relatively low, the field starts acting like cold dark matter relatively late, shortly before the epoch of equal mass densities in matter and radiation. This could have observable consequences for galaxy formation. We respond to recent criticisms of the quintessential inflation scenario, since these issues also apply to elements of the noninteracting dark matter picture.Comment: 37 pages, 3 figure

    Of Bounces, Branes and Bounds

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    Some recent studies have considered a Randall-Sundrum-like brane world evolving in the background of an anti-de Sitter Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. For this scenario, it has been shown that, when the bulk charge is non-vanishing, a singularity-free ``bounce'' universe will always be obtained. However, for the physically relevant case of a de Sitter brane world, we have recently argued that, from a holographic (c-theorem) perspective, such brane worlds may not be physically viable. In the current paper, we reconsider the validity of such models by appealing to the so-called ``causal entropy bound''. In this framework, a paradoxical outcome is obtained: these brane worlds are indeed holographically viable, provided that the bulk charge is not too small. We go on to argue that this new finding is likely the more reliable one.Comment: 15 pages, Revtex; references added and very minor change

    Global Fluctuation Spectra in Big Crunch/Big Bang String Vacua

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    We study Big Crunch/Big Bang cosmologies that correspond to exact world-sheet superconformal field theories of type II strings. The string theory spacetime contains a Big Crunch and a Big Bang cosmology, as well as additional ``whisker'' asymptotic and intermediate regions. Within the context of free string theory, we compute, unambiguously, the scalar fluctuation spectrum in all regions of spacetime. Generically, the Big Crunch fluctuation spectrum is altered while passing through the bounce singularity. The change in the spectrum is characterized by a function Δ\Delta, which is momentum and time-dependent. We compute Δ\Delta explicitly and demonstrate that it arises from the whisker regions. The whiskers are also shown to lead to ``entanglement'' entropy in the Big Bang region. Finally, in the Milne orbifold limit of our superconformal vacua, we show that Δ1\Delta\to 1 and, hence, the fluctuation spectrum is unaltered by the Big Crunch/Big Bang singularity. We comment on, but do not attempt to resolve, subtleties related to gravitational backreaction and light winding modes when interactions are taken into account.Comment: 68 pages, 1 figure; typos correcte

    Inflationary Correlation Functions without Infrared Divergences

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    Inflationary correlation functions are potentially affected by infrared divergences. For example, the two-point correlator of curvature perturbation at momentum k receives corrections ~ln(kL), where L is the size of the region in which the measurement is performed. We define infrared-safe correlation functions which have no sensitivity to the size L of the box used for the observation. The conventional correlators with their familiar log-enhanced corrections (both from scalar and tensor long-wavelength modes) are easily recovered from our IR-safe correlation functions. Among other examples, we illustrate this by calculating the corrections to the non-Gaussianity parameter f_NL coming from long-wavelength tensor modes. In our approach, the IR corrections automatically emerge in a resummed, all-orders form. For the scalar corrections, the resulting all-orders expression can be evaluated explicitly.Comment: 25 pages, v2,v3: Referencing improved, v4: improved explanations, extra reference

    First Observation of Coherent π0\pi^0 Production in Neutrino Nucleus Interactions with Eν<E_{\nu}< 2 GeV

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    The MiniBooNE experiment at Fermilab has amassed the largest sample to date of π0\pi^0s produced in neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interactions at low energy. This paper reports a measurement of the momentum distribution of π0\pi^0s produced in mineral oil (CH2_2) and the first observation of coherent π0\pi^0 production below 2 GeV. In the forward direction, the yield of events observed above the expectation for resonant production is attributed primarily to coherent production off carbon, but may also include a small contribution from diffractive production on hydrogen. Integrated over the MiniBooNE neutrino flux, the sum of the NC coherent and diffractive modes is found to be (19.5 ±\pm1.1 (stat) ±\pm2.5 (sys))% of all exclusive NC π0\pi^0 production at MiniBooNE. These measurements are of immediate utility because they quantify an important background to MiniBooNE's search for νμνe\nu_{\mu} \to \nu_e oscillations.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Lett.

    Dynamic functional connectivity analysis reveals transient states of dysconnectivity in schizophrenia

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    Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity or abnormal integration between distant brain regions. Recent functional imaging studies have implicated large-scale thalamo-cortical connectivity as being disrupted in patients. However, observed connectivity differences in schizophrenia have been inconsistent between studies, with reports of hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity between the same brain regions. Using resting state eyes-closed functional imaging and independent component analysis on a multi-site data that included 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 age- and gender matched healthy controls, we decomposed the functional brain data into 100 components and identified 47 as functionally relevant intrinsic connectivity networks. We subsequently evaluated group differences in functional network connectivity, both in a static sense, computed as the pairwise Pearson correlations between the full network time courses (5.4minutes in length), and a dynamic sense, computed using sliding windows (44s in length) and k-means clustering to characterize five discrete functional connectivity states. Static connectivity analysis revealed that compared to healthy controls, patients show significantly stronger connectivity, i.e., hyperconnectivity, between the thalamus and sensory networks (auditory, motor and visual), as well as reduced connectivity (hypoconnectivity) between sensory networks from all modalities. Dynamic analysis suggests that (1), on average, schizophrenia patients spend much less time than healthy controls in states typified by strong, large-scale connectivity, and (2), that abnormal connectivity patterns are more pronounced during these connectivity states. In particular, states exhibiting cortical–subcortical antagonism (anti-correlations) and strong positive connectivity between sensory networks are those that show the group differences of thalamic hyperconnectivity and sensory hypoconnectivity. Group differences are weak or absent during other connectivity states. Dynamic analysis also revealed hypoconnectivity between the putamen and sensory networks during the same states of thalamic hyperconnectivity; notably, this finding cannot be observed in the static connectivity analysis. Finally, in post-hoc analyses we observed that the relationships between sub-cortical low frequency power and connectivity with sensory networks is altered in patients, suggesting different functional interactions between sub-cortical nuclei and sensorimotor cortex during specific connectivity states. While important differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls have been identified, one should interpret the results with caution given the history of medication in patients. Taken together, our results support and expand current knowledge regarding dysconnectivity in schizophrenia, and strongly advocate the use of dynamic analyses to better account for and understand functional connectivity differences.Highlights•Studied both static and dynamic connectivity changes in schizophrenia during rest•Small but significant connectivity differences might be obscured in static analysis.•Patients show significant differences in dwell times in multiple states.•Disrupted thalamo-cortical connectivity in schizophrenia in a state-specific manne

    Production and Decay of D_1(2420)^0 and D_2^*(2460)^0

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    We have investigated D+πD^{+}\pi^{-} and D+πD^{*+}\pi^{-} final states and observed the two established L=1L=1 charmed mesons, the D1(2420)0D_1(2420)^0 with mass 242122+1+22421^{+1+2}_{-2-2} MeV/c2^{2} and width 2053+6+320^{+6+3}_{-5-3} MeV/c2^{2} and the D2(2460)0D_2^*(2460)^0 with mass 2465±3±32465 \pm 3 \pm 3 MeV/c2^{2} and width 2876+8+628^{+8+6}_{-7-6} MeV/c2^{2}. Properties of these final states, including their decay angular distributions and spin-parity assignments, have been studied. We identify these two mesons as the jlight=3/2j_{light}=3/2 doublet predicted by HQET. We also obtain constraints on {\footnotesize ΓS/(ΓS+ΓD)\Gamma_S/(\Gamma_S + \Gamma_D)} as a function of the cosine of the relative phase of the two amplitudes in the D1(2420)0D_1(2420)^0 decay.Comment: 15 pages in REVTEX format. hardcopies with figures can be obtained by sending mail to: [email protected]
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