17,904 research outputs found

### Omega time transmissions and receiving requirements

A short history is given of the development of dual VLF time transmission techniques. The theory of time recovery from the relative phase of the dual frequency transmission is presented. The transmission and receiving requirements for cycle identification and cycle ambiguity resolution are described. Finally, an experiment to test the capability of time transmission of the OMEGA system is propose

### Geometric approach to Fletcher's ideal penalty function

Original article can be found at: www.springerlink.com Copyright Springer. [Originally produced as UH Technical Report 280, 1993]In this note, we derive a geometric formulation of an ideal penalty function for equality constrained problems. This differentiable penalty function requires no parameter estimation or adjustment, has numerical conditioning similar to that of the target function from which it is constructed, and also has the desirable property that the strict second-order constrained minima of the target function are precisely those strict second-order unconstrained minima of the penalty function which satisfy the constraints. Such a penalty function can be used to establish termination properties for algorithms which avoid ill-conditioned steps. Numerical values for the penalty function and its derivatives can be calculated efficiently using automatic differentiation techniques.Peer reviewe

### Thermo-acoustic wave propagation and reflection near the liquid-gas critical point

We study the thermo-acoustic wave propagation and reflection near the
liquid-gas critical point. Specifically, we perform a numerical investigation
of the acoustic responses in a near-critical fluid to thermal perturbations
based on the same setup of a recent ultrasensitive interferometry measurement
in CO2 [Y. Miura et al. Phys. Rev. E 74, 010101(R) (2006)]. The numerical
results agree well with the experimental data. New features regarding the
reflection pattern of thermo-acoustic waves near the critical point under pulse
perturbations are revealed by the proper inclusion of the critically diverging
bulk viscosity.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, Accepted by PRE (Rapid Communication

### Classical noise and flux: the limits of multi-state atom lasers

By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show how the classical
noise on a multi-state atom laser beam increases with increasing flux. The
trade off between classical noise and flux is an important consideration in
precision interferometric measurement. We use periodic 10 microsecond
radio-frequency pulses to couple atoms out of an F=2 87Rb Bose-Einstein
condensate. The resulting atom laser beam has suprising structure which is
explained using three dimensional simulations of the five state
Gross-Pitaevskii equations.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

### Interpretation of the angular dependence of the de Haas-van Alphen effect in MgB_2

We present detailed results for the amplitude and field dependence of the de
Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal arising from the electron-like $\pi$ sheet of
Fermi surface in MgB_2. Our data and analysis show that the dip in dHvA
amplitude when the field is close to the basal plane is caused by a beat
between two very similar dHvA frequencies and not a spin-zero effect as
previously assumed. Our results imply that the Stoner enhancement factors in
MgB_2 are small on both the Sigma and Pi sheets.Comment: 4 pages with figures. Submitted to PR

### The Physicist's Guide to the Orchestra

An experimental study of strings, woodwinds (organ pipe, flute, clarinet,
saxophone and recorder), and the voice was undertaken to illustrate the basic
principles of sound production in music instruments. The setup used is simple
and consists of common laboratory equipment. Although the canonical examples
(standing wave on a string, in an open and closed pipe) are easily reproduced,
they fail to explain the majority of the measurements. The reasons for these
deviations are outlined and discussed.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figures (jpg files). Submitted to European Journal of
Physic

### Function reconstruction as a classical moment problem: A maximum entropy approach

We present a systematic study of the reconstruction of a non-negative
function via maximum entropy approach utilizing the information contained in a
finite number of moments of the function. For testing the efficacy of the
approach, we reconstruct a set of functions using an iterative entropy
optimization scheme, and study the convergence profile as the number of moments
is increased. We consider a wide variety of functions that include a
distribution with a sharp discontinuity, a rapidly oscillatory function, a
distribution with singularities, and finally a distribution with several spikes
and fine structure. The last example is important in the context of the
determination of the natural density of the logistic map. The convergence of
the method is studied by comparing the moments of the approximated functions
with the exact ones. Furthermore, by varying the number of moments and
iterations, we examine to what extent the features of the functions, such as
the divergence behavior at singular points within the interval, is reproduced.
The proximity of the reconstructed maximum entropy solution to the exact
solution is examined via Kullback-Leibler divergence and variation measures for
different number of moments.Comment: 20 pages, 17 figure

### Enhanced tracer transport by the spiral defect chaos state of a convecting fluid

To understand how spatiotemporal chaos may modify material transport, we use
direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations and
of an advection-diffusion equation to study the transport of a passive tracer
by the spiral defect chaos state of a convecting fluid. The simulations show
that the transport is diffusive and is enhanced by the spatiotemporal chaos.
The enhancement in tracer diffusivity follows two regimes. For large Peclet
numbers (that is, small molecular diffusivities of the tracer), we find that
the enhancement is proportional to the Peclet number. For small Peclet numbers,
the enhancement is proportional to the square root of the Peclet number. We
explain the presence of these two regimes in terms of how the local transport
depends on the local wave numbers of the convection rolls. For large Peclet
numbers, we further find that defects cause the tracer diffusivity to be
enhanced locally in the direction orthogonal to the local wave vector but
suppressed in the direction of the local wave vector.Comment: 11 pages, 12 figure

### Damping of the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in the superconducting state of MgB_2

The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal arising from orbits on the $\pi$ Fermi
surface sheet of the two-gap superconductor MgB$_2$ has been observed in the
vortex state below $H_{c2}$. An extra attenuation of the dHvA signal, beyond
those effects described in the conventional Lifshitz-Kosevich expression, is
seen due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our data show that the
$\pi$ band gap is still present up to $H_{c2}$. The data are compared to
current theories of dHvA oscillations in the superconducting state which allow
us to extract estimates for the evolution of the $\pi$ band gap with magnetic
field. Contrary to results for other materials, we find that the most recent
theories dramatically underestimate the damping in MgB$_2$.Comment: 10 pages with figures. Submitted to Phys. Rev. B. PDF version with
higher quality figures can be found at
http://www.phy.bris.ac.uk/research/cond_matt/PdfPubs/mgb2RSdhva.pd

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