498 research outputs found

    A thermodynamically consistent kinetic framework for binary nucleation

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    The traditional theory for binary homogeneous nucleation follows the classical derivation of the nucleation rate in the supposition of a hypothetical constrained-equilibrium distribution in the calculation of the cluster evaporation rate. This model enables calculation of the nucleation rate, but requires evaluation of the cluster distribution and cluster properties for an unstable equilibrium with supersaturated vapor. An alternate derivation of the classical homomolecular nucleation rate eliminated the need for this nonphysical approximation by calculating the evaporative flux at full thermodynamic equilibrium. The present paper develops that approach for binary nucleation; the framework is readily extended to ternary nucleation. In this analysis, the evaporative flux is evaluated by applying mass balance at full thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study. This approach eliminates both the need for evaluating cluster properties in an unstable constrained-equilibrium state and ambiguity in the normalization constant required in the nucleation-rate expression. Moreover, it naturally spans the entire composition range between the two pure monomers. The cluster fluxes derived using this new model are similar in form to those of classical derivations, so previously developed methods for evaluation of the net nucleation rate can be applied directly to the new formulation

    Particulate emissions from energy systems

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    General models of aerosol dynamics, originally developed to simulate atmospheric aerosol behavior, have been extended for application to combustion and other high temperature processes. These models are now being used to study the fate of ash vapors in conventional pulverized-coal combustion. Field measurements have shown that the vapors condense preferentially on the surfaces of the smaller ash particles. Previous simplified calculations have suggested that large numbers of very small particles may also be formed by the condensation of these vapors. The new, exact calculations will be used to explore the relative importance of new particle formation and condensation on existing particles, the size distributions of the particles produced under various combustion conditions, and the distribution of chemical composition with respect to particle size

    Excitation Mechanisms of the Nitrogen First‐Positive and First‐Negative Radiation at High Temperature

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    The kinetic mechanisms responsible for the excitation of the first-positive and first-negative emission of nitrogen have been investigated in a re-examination of previously reported shock-tube measurements of the nonequilibrium radiation for these systems. The rate coefficients of the collisional quenching reactions, N_2(A^(3)Σ^(+)_u)(^(k^(N)_(-2))⇒) N_2(X^(1)Σ^(+)_g) + N(^(4)S) and N^(+)_2(B^(2)Σ^(+)_u) + N_2(X^(1)Σ^(+)_g)(^(k^(N)_(q))⇒) N^(+)_2(X^(2)Σ^(+)_g) or N^(+)_2(A(^(2)II_u)+N_2(X^(1)Σ^(+)_g) were found to be given by the empirical expressions, k_(2^(N))=5.1x10^(-3)T^(-2.23) cm^3 sec^(-1) and k_(q^(N_2))=1.9x10^(-2)T^(-2.33)cm^3 sec^(-1), respectively, over the approximate temperature range 6000-14 000°K

    Scale-up of electrospray atomization using linear arrays of Taylor cones

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    Linear arrays of Taylor cones were established on capillary electrode tubes opposite a slotted flat plate counterelectrode to investigate the feasibility of increasing the liquid throughput rate in electrospray atomizers. It was found that individual Taylor cones could be established on each capillary over a wide range of the capillary radius to spacing ratio R/S. The onset potential Vs required to establish the cones varied directly with R/S, but the liquid flow rate per cone and current per cone were nearly independent of R/S for a given overpotential ratio P=V/Vs. Only six working capillaries were used, but the results per cone are applicable to larger arrays of cones since end effects were minimized

    Thermodynamic properties and homogeneous nucleation rates for surface-melted physical clusters

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    We predict the free energy of van der Waals clusters (Fn) in the surface-melted temperature regime. These free energies are used to predict the bulk chemical potential, surface tension, Tolman length, and vapor pressure of noble gas crystals. Together, these estimates allow us to make definitive tests of the capillarity approximation in classical homogeneous nucleation theory. We find that the capillarity approximation underestimates the nucleation rate by thirty orders of magnitude for argon. The best available experiments are consistent with our calculation of nucleation rate as a function of temperature and pressure. We suggest experimental conditions appropriate for determining quantitative nucleation rates which would be invaluable in guiding further development of the theory. To make the predictions of Fn, we develop the Shellwise Lattice Search (SLS) algorithm to identify isomer fragments and the Linear Group Contribution (LGC) method to estimate the energy of isomers composed of those fragments. Together, SLS/LGC approximates the distribution of isomers which contribute to the configurational partition function (for up to 147-atom clusters). Estimates of the remaining free energy contributions come from a previous paper in this series

    Free energy and surface tension of arbitrarily large Mackay icosahedral clusters

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    We present a model for predicting the free energy of arbitrarily large Mackay icosahedral clusters. van der Waals clusters are experimentally observed to be particularly stable at magic numbers corresponding to these structures. Explicit calculations on the vibrational states were used to determine the spectrum of fundamental frequencies for smaller (~561 atoms). Combining these predictions with correlations for the moment of inertia and for the minimum potential energy of large clusters leads to free energies of arbitrary large clusters. The free energies are used to predict the chemical potential and surface tension as a function of size and temperature. This connects macroscopic properties to the microscopic atomic parameters

    The hindered rotor density-of-states interpolation function

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    We construct an approximation to the partition function for hindered rotors based entirely on their asymptotic behavior and no fitting parameters. The approximant is shown to be quite accurate in all temperature ranges. Explicit auxiliary functions are derived for the Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, heat capacity, and entropy. We apply this function to estimating the heat capacity and unimolecular dissociation rate for ethane

    Scholars Forum: A New Model For Scholarly Communication

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    Scholarly journals have flourished for over 300 years because they successfully address a broad range of authors' needs: to communicate findings to colleagues, to establish precedence of their work, to gain validation through peer review, to establish their reputation, to know the final version of their work is secure, and to know their work will be accessible by future scholars. Eventually, the development of comprehensive paper and then electronic indexes allowed past work to be readily identified and cited. Just as postal service made it possible to share scholarly work regularly and among a broad readership, the Internet now provides a distribution channel with the power to reduce publication time and to expand traditional print formats by supporting multi-media options and threaded discourse. Despite widespread acceptance of the web by the academic and research community, the incorporation of advanced network technology into a new paradigm for scholarly communication by the publishers of print journals has not materialized. Nor have journal publishers used the lower cost of distribution on the web to make online versions of journals available at lower prices than print versions. It is becoming increasingly clear to the scholarly community that we must envision and develop for ourselves a new, affordable model for disseminating and preserving results, that synthesizes digital technology and the ongoing needs of scholars. In March 1997, with support from the Engineering Information Foundation, Caltech sponsored a Conference on Scholarly Communication to open a dialogue around key issues and to consider the feasibility of alternative undertakings. A general consensus emerged recognizing that the certification of scholarly articles through peer review could be "decoupled" from the rest of the publishing process, and that the peer review process is already supported by the universities whose faculty serve as editors, members of editorial boards, and referees. In the meantime, pressure to enact regressive copyright legislation has added another important element. The ease with which electronic files may be copied and forwarded has encouraged publishers and other owners of copyrighted material to seek means for denying access to anything they own in digital form to all but active subscribers or licensees. Furthermore, should publishers retain the only version of a publication in a digital form, there is a significant risk that this material may eventually be lost through culling little-used or unprofitable back-files, through not investing in conversion expense as technology evolves, through changes in ownership, or through catastrophic physical events. Such a scenario presents an intolerable threat to the future of scholarship

    Particle sizing in the electrodynamic balance

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    We report a new technique for sizing particles in the electrodynamic balance. In this technique, the trajectory of a falling particle is followed with a photomultiplier tube. Particle velocities are measured by placing a mask between the particle and the detector. The masked region in the particle trajectory is roughly 0.6 mm wide. Output from the PMT is sampled every millisecond by an A/D converter and stored in a computer. Flight times of several hundred milliseconds are measured and the size is then computed from the particle's terminal velocity. With a modification of the mask, the technique is used to verify the uniformity of the electric field through which the particle is falling. In the present work we use the technique to determine size of polystryrene latex microspheres having nominal diameters of 10 and 20 µ. The technique can be used on any size particle, independent of its charge-to-mass ratio, and provides the size information in a short time
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