27 research outputs found

    Alcohol‐Associated Liver Disease Before and After COVID‐19 – An Overview and Call for Ongoing Investigation

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    The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exacted a heavy toll on patients with alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). The collective burden of ALD and AUD was large and growing prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. There is accumulating evidence that this pandemic has had a large direct effect on these patients and is likely to produce indirect effects via delays in care, psychological strain, and increased alcohol use. Now a year into the pandemic, it is important that clinicians fully understand the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with ALD and AUD. To fill existing gaps in knowledge, the scientific community must set research priorities for patients with ALD regarding their risk of COVID-19, prevention/treatment of COVID-19, changes in alcohol use during the pandemic, best use of AUD treatments in the COVID-19 era, and downstream effects of this pandemic on ALD. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic has already inflicted disproportionate harms on patients with ALD and ongoing, focused research efforts will be critical to better understand the direct and collateral effects of this pandemic on ALD

    Oral Pirfenidone in patients with chronic fibrosis resulting from radiotherapy: a pilot study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Fibrosis is a common side effect after treatment with ionizing radiation. Several methods to ameliorate debilitating fibrosis have been employed but without consistent results. The goal of this pilot study is to determine if Pirfenidone, a novel regulator of cytokine gene expression, has the potential to ameliorate established radiation-induced fibrosis.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Open label, prospective pilot study of 800 mg three times/day, orally administered Pirfenidone was administered to enrolled patients who were had completed radiation therapy and who had established radiation-induced fibrosis. Range of motion (ROM) was assessed using standard measures, and subjective measures of pain, fatigue, disability and global health were measured every three months.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Seven patients were enrolled of whom 3 had ROM assessments of 1 site and 2 had ROM assessments of 2 sites. Of these assessments, 6 revealed increased ROM during drug intervention while 1 revealed a decreased ROM. There was an overall improvement in the mental composite score of the SF36 while physical composite score was decreased and the vitality score was unchanged. Two patients were removed from the study because of syncopal episodes.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Several patients experienced improved function of at least 25% and reported subjective improvement. Pirfenidone may benefit patients with radiation-induced fibrosis and is worthy of a larger well controlled trial.</p

    The Science Performance of JWST as Characterized in Commissioning

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    This paper characterizes the actual science performance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as determined from the six month commissioning period. We summarize the performance of the spacecraft, telescope, science instruments, and ground system, with an emphasis on differences from pre-launch expectations. Commissioning has made clear that JWST is fully capable of achieving the discoveries for which it was built. Moreover, almost across the board, the science performance of JWST is better than expected; in most cases, JWST will go deeper faster than expected. The telescope and instrument suite have demonstrated the sensitivity, stability, image quality, and spectral range that are necessary to transform our understanding of the cosmos through observations spanning from near-earth asteroids to the most distant galaxies.Comment: 5th version as accepted to PASP; 31 pages, 18 figures; https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1538-3873/acb29