70,788 research outputs found

### Studying pion effects in the quark propagator

Within the framework of Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations we
investigate the importance of pions for the quark-gluon interaction. To this
end we choose a truncation for the quark-gluon vertex that includes
intermediate pion degrees of freedom and adjust the interaction such that
unquenched lattice results for various current quark masses are reproduced. The
corresponding Bethe-Salpeter kernel is constructed from constraints by chiral
symmetry. After extrapolation to the physical point we find a considerable
contribution of the pion back reaction to the quark mass function as well as to
the chiral condensate. The quark wave function is less affected.Comment: Talk given at 11th International Conference on Meson-Nucleon Physics
and the Structure of the Nucleon (MENU 2007), Julich, Germany, 10-14 Sep 200

### The Role of Sex Hormones in Inducing Maternal Uterine Remodeling and Vasodilation During Pregnancy

Uterine vascular adaptations such as vessel growth and vasodilation are needed to facilitate the more than 10-fold increase of uteroplacental blood flow (UPBF) during pregnancy. Adverse adaptations may result in pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy milieu, placentation and the attendant change in wall shear stress are major regulators of uterine vascular adaptation. In this study, we aimed at delineating : (1) the contribution of these regulators in vascular remodeling and (2) the effects of pregnancy milieu (estrogen and progesterone) alone and in combination with wall shear stress on the vascular reactivity. Using Sprague Dawley rats as the animal model, three surgical methods were utilized: (1) unilateral oviductal ligation (OHL) that restricts pregnancy to one uterine horn; (2) cervical-end main uterine artery and vein ligation (VL) that alters the hemodynamic pattern of the UPBF and wall shear stress; and (3) ovariectomy (OVX) with the implant of estrogen + progesterone pellet (0.5 and 100 mg, respectively). A segment of ovarian-end main uterine artery from each uterine horn was dissected, cannulated, and pressurized in an arteriograph system. Lumen diameters in response to phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and acetylcholine (vasodilator) were measured. Passive lumen diameters, wall thickness, vessel cross-sectional area, and distensibility were also measured under a microscope. Significant remodeling was seen in OVX rats in response to hormone replacement (p=0.0457); however, the extent of remodeling did not reach that seen in the nonpregnant horn of OHL rats. No significant change in wall thickness, cross-sectional area or wall: lumen ratio was found in OVX (+pellet), compared to OVX (-pellet) rats. Estrogen + progesterone had no significant effect on the sensitivity to phenylephrine or acetylcholine. In conclusion, estrogen + progesterone does have a significant effect on vascular remodeling. The presence of other factors, such as placentation, likely augment this process

### Dynamics of the Young Binary LMC Cluster NGC 1850

In this paper we have examined the age and internal dynamics of the young
binary LMC cluster NGC 1850 using BV CCD images and echelle spectra of 52
supergiants. Isochrone fits to a BV color-magnitude diagram revealed that the
primary cluster has an age of $\tau = 90 \pm 30$ Myr while the secondary member
has $\tau = 6 \pm 5$ Myr. BV surface brightness profiles were constructed out
to R $>$ 40 pc, and single-component King-Michie (KM) models were applied. The
total cluster luminosity varied from L$_B$ = 2.60 - 2.65 $\times 10^6$
L$_B$\sol\ and L$_V$ = 1.25 - 1.35 $\times 10^6$ as the anisotropy radius
varied from infinity to three times the scale radius with the isotropic models
providing the best agreement with the data. Of the 52 stars with echelle
spectra, a subset of 36 were used to study the cluster dynamics. The KM radial
velocity distributions were fitted to these velocities yielding total cluster
masses of 5.4 - 5.9 $\pm 2.4 \times 10^4$ M\sol\ corresponding to M/L$_B$ =
0.02 $\pm 0.01$ M\sol/L$_B$\sol\ or M/L$_V$ = 0.05 $\pm 0.02$ M\sol/L$_V$\sol.
A rotational signal in the radial velocities has been detected at the 93\%
confidence level implying a rotation axis at a position angle of 100\deg. A
variety of rotating models were fit to the velocity data assuming cluster
ellipticities of $\epsilon = 0.1 - 0.3$. These models provided slightly better
agreement with the radial velocity data than the KM models and had masses that
were systematically lower by a few percent. The preferred value for the slope
of a power-law IMF is a relatively shallow, x = 0.29 \pmm{+0.3}{-0.8}
assuming the B-band M/L or x = 0.71 \pmm{+0.2}{-0.4} for the V-band.Comment: 41 pages (figures available via anonymous FTP as described below

### Moderate lift-to-drag aeroassist

Significant performance benefits are realized via aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezvous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted OTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The aeroassisted OTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screening was conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya (12 hours x 63.4 deg) orbits with return and recovery of the aeroassist orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission (6K up and 2K return) and a manned GEO mission (14K roundtrip)

### An Introduction to Conformal Ricci Flow

We introduce a variation of the classical Ricci flow equation that modifies
the unit volume constraint of that equation to a scalar curvature constraint.
The resulting equations are named the Conformal Ricci Flow Equations because of
the role that conformal geometry plays in constraining the scalar curvature.
These equations are analogous to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations of
fluid mechanics inasmuch as a conformal pressure arises as a Lagrange
multiplier to conformally deform the metric flow so as to maintain the scalar
curvature constraint. The equilibrium points are Einstein metrics with a
negative Einstein constant and the conformal pressue is shown to be zero at an
equilibrium point and strictly positive otherwise. The geometry of the
conformal Ricci flow is discussed as well as the remarkable analytic fact that
the constraint force does not lose derivatives and thus analytically the
conformal Ricci equation is a bounded perturbation of the classical
unnormalized Ricci equation. That the constraint force does not lose
derivatives is exactly analogous to the fact that the real physical pressure
force that occurs in the Navier-Stokes equations is a bounded function of the
velocity. Using a nonlinear Trotter product formula, existence and uniqueness
of solutions to the conformal Ricci flow equations is proven. Lastly, we
discuss potential applications to Perelman's proposed implementation of
Hamilton's program to prove Thurston's 3-manifold geometrization conjectures.Comment: 52 pages, 1 figur

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