36 research outputs found

    A Feminist Economics Perspective on Recent Trends in Inequality in Canada

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    This paper evaluates, from a feminist economics perspective, the widely discussed trend of increased inequality in Canada. The paper highlights the neoclassical economic concepts underlying the measurement of inequality trends, and it examines how these concepts fail to fully reflect women's contributions to welfare and their welfare positions relative to those of men.Cet article Ă©value, Ă  partir de la perspective Ă©conomique fĂ©ministe, la tendance grandement discutĂ©e de l'inĂ©galitĂ© croissante au Canada. Cet article souligne les concepts Ă©conomiques nĂ©oclassiques qui sont Ă  la base de la mesure de la tendance vers l'inĂ©galitĂ©, et il Ă©tudie comment ces concepts ne reflĂštent pas totatelement les contributions que les femmes ont faites au bien-ĂȘtre social et leurs positions de bien-ĂȘtre social en comparaison Ă  celles des homme

    Labour Migration and Time Use Patterns of the Left-Behind Children and Elderly in Rural China

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    Rural-urban migration has become a major feature of the Chinese economy since the mid-1990s. Due to institutional arrangements and economic and cultural factors, massive labor migration has resulted in a large left-behind population consisting of children, non-elderly married women, and the elderly. This paper examines the impacts of labor migration on time use patterns of the left-behind elderly people and children in rural China, using data derived from the China’s health and Nutrition Health Survey (CHNS) for the period between 1997 and 2006. The results show that the migration of household members increases the time spent on farm work and domestic work for the left-behind elderly, and the migration of parents increases the time spent on farm work and domestic work for the left-behind children. Importantly, migration has striking gender differentiated impacts with the increase in work time being greater for elderly women and girls than elderly men and boys. These results have important policy implications.

    Transitions from temporary to permanent work in Canada: who makes the transition and why?

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    The focus of this paper is on a microeconomic analysis of the annual transition rate from temporary to permanent work of individual workers in Canada for the period 1999-2004. Given that a large proportion of temporary employment is involuntary, an understanding of the factors associated with the transition to permanent work may inform public policy. Factors associated with the transition, namely, human capital, household structures and labour market segmentation are analyzed using data from the Statistics Canada's Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) for the period 1999-2004, limited to paid workers aged 2-4 years, excluding students. Among the key factors associated with the transitions are younger age and low unemployment rates. The analysis adds to the Canadian and international literature on transitions from temporary to permanent work

    Increased Earnings Inequality and Macroeconomic Performance: the case of Canada in the 1980s

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    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the increase in earnings inequality and the relationship to macroeconomic conditions, in Canada, during the 1980s. Regression results presented here indicate that a positive and uniform relationship between the unemployment rate and earnings inequality existed through the period 1981 to 1989. These results contrast with recent findings that the unemployment-inequality relationship weakened in the late 1980s in other liberal economies, such as the US and UK. The main policy implication is that stimulative macroeconomic policy remains a relevant policy instrument in Canada and, more generally, that institutions, such as the degree of unionization, and policies, such as minimum wages, may partially explain differences in the pattern of inequality among countries.

    Are estimates of earnings inequality sensitive to measurement choices? A case study of Canada in the 1980s

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    While it is necessary that researchers make choices in order to estimate inequality, the reasons for the measurement choices and their impact on inequality estimates have not been widely assessed. This paper uses Canadian data from the 1980s to analyse whether inequality estimates are sensitive to common measurement choices. Seemingly minor technical choices about the treatment of outlying observations, such as the use of top-income coded data, exclusion of very high and low observations, and differences among data sets in the capture of very high observations affect estimates of inequality. Further, the impact of the treatment of outlying observations on inequality estimates are at least as large as the impact of measurement choices of a conceptual nature, such as the income definition and population selection. The sensitivity of inequality estimates to measurement choices, which often remain invisible, affect inferences about the relative degree of inequality at a given point in time among countries and changes over time.

    The role of chemokines and their receptors during protist parasite infections

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    SUMMARYProtists are a diverse collection of eukaryotic organisms that account for a significant global infection burden. Often, the immune responses mounted against these parasites cause excessive inflammation and therefore pathology in the host. Elucidating the mechanisms of both protective and harmful immune responses is complex, and often relies of the use of animal models. In any immune response, leucocyte trafficking to the site of infection, or inflammation, is paramount, and this involves the production of chemokines, small chemotactic cytokines of approximately 8–10 kDa in size, which bind to specific chemokine receptors to induce leucocyte movement. Herein, the scientific literature investigating the role of chemokines in the propagation of immune responses against key protist infections will be reviewed, focussing onPlasmodiumspecies,Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmaniaspecies andCryptosporidiumspecies. Interestingly, many studies find that chemokines can in fact, promote parasite survival in the host, by drawing in leucocytes for spread and further replication. Recent developments in drug targeting against chemokine receptors highlights the need for further understanding of the role played by these proteins and their receptors in many different diseases.</jats:p

    Social Licence Comes to Greenland’s Mining Sector: Will Communities be Empowered?

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    The social licence to operate is a concept that has been applied to the mining sector internationally for the past two decades. In 2017, it was raised by a number of actors as a way to reduce controversy over mining projects in Greenland. In this paper, we analyse why the concept of social licence appeared, and the legitimacy problems that it was intended to resolve despite numerous changes to Greenland’s mining approval processes. We argue that the concept was introduced primarily as a way of seeking to enhance the voices and agency of local communities in resource governance. We further ask whether, on the basis of Canadian experience where social licence has been used for much longer in natural resource governance discourse, introducing the concept into Greenland will likely lead to an empowerment of communities. We argue that the Canadian experience in this regard shows that the outcome is complex, that community empowerment can take different forms or may not occur at all. Such complexity is also likely in Greenland. Le permis social d’exploitation est un concept qui a cours dans le secteur minier international depuis deux dĂ©cennies. En 2017, ce permis social a Ă©tĂ© soulevĂ© par un certain nombre d’acteurs comme maniĂšre d’attĂ©nuer la controverse entourant les projets miniers du Groenland. Dans cet article, nous analysons ce qui a donnĂ© le jour au permis social d’exploitation et les problĂšmes de lĂ©gitimitĂ© que ces permis Ă©taient censĂ©s rĂ©soudre malgrĂ© les nombreux changements apportĂ©s aux processus d’approbation de l’exploitation miniĂšre au Groenland. Nous soutenons que le concept a Ă©tĂ© principalement adoptĂ© pour tenter d’amĂ©liorer la voix et l’instrumentalitĂ© des communautĂ©s locales en matiĂšre de gouvernance des ressources. Par ailleurs, nous tĂąchons de dĂ©terminer, en fonction de l’expĂ©rience canadienne oĂč le permis social d’exploitation est utilisĂ© depuis beaucoup plus longtemps dans le discours de la gouvernance des ressources naturelles, si l’adoption de ce concept au Groenland engendrera vraisemblablement l’autonomisation des communautĂ©s. Nous soutenons que l’expĂ©rience canadienne Ă  cet Ă©gard montre que le rĂ©sultat est complexe, que l’autonomisation des communautĂ©s peut prendre diffĂ©rences formes, ou qu’elle peut ne pas se concrĂ©tiser du tout. Une telle complexitĂ© est Ă©galement susceptible de survenir au Groenland.

    Temporary work and neoliberal government policy: evidence from British Columbia, Canada

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    We examine the impact of government policy on the incidence of temporary work by analysing the case of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The analysis is based upon the Canadian Labour Force Survey 1997–2004; temporary work is defined as work that is not expected to last for more than 6 months and includes seasonal, fixed‐term, casual, and temporary help agency work. A case study of BC provides a valuable opportunity to assess the impacts of neoliberal government policy, designed to increase labour market flexibility, on the extent of temporary work because we are able to compare labour market trends in BC both before and after the reforms introduced in 2001 and to compare BC with other provinces in Canada that were not subject to such large changes in their policy environments. We find that the shift to neoliberal policies in BC led to significant increases in the likelihood of workers finding themselves in temporary employment. We also find that the likelihood of being a temporary worker in BC in the post‐policy change period increases relative to all other provinces over the same period. Taken together, these results indicate that government policy is a key determinant of the level of temporary work. As such, the level of temporary work should be seen as a policy‐sensitive variable, rather than as a phenomenon determined solely by the exogenous forces of globalization and technological change.temporary work, flexibility, labour markets, neoliberalism, government policy, J21, J48, J81, O51,
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