283 research outputs found

    Semantics and Conversations for an Agent Communication Language

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    We address the issues of semantics and conversations for agent communication languages and the Knowledge Query Manipulation Language (KQML) in particular. Based on ideas from speech act theory, we present a semantic description for KQML that associates ``cognitive'' states of the agent with the use of the language's primitives (performatives). We have used this approach to describe the semantics for the whole set of reserved KQML performatives. Building on the semantics, we devise the conversation policies, i.e., a formal description of how KQML performatives may be combined into KQML exchanges (conversations), using a Definite Clause Grammar. Our research offers methods for a speech act theory-based semantic description of a language of communication acts and for the specification of the protocols associated with these acts. Languages of communication acts address the issue of communication among software applications at a level of abstraction that is useful to the emerging software agents paradigm.Comment: Also in in "Readings in Agents", Michael Huhns and Munindar Singh (eds), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, In


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    Uncertain facts and inexact rules can be represented and processed in standard Prolog through meta-interpretation. This requires the specification of appropriate parsers and belief calculi. We present a meta-interpreter that takes a rule-based belief calculus as an external variable. The certainty-factors calculus and a heuristic Bayesian belief-update model are then implemented as stand-alone Prolog predicates. These, in turn, are bound to the meta-interpreter environment through second-order programming. The resulting system is a powerful experimental tool which enables inquiry into the impact of various designs of belief calculi on the external validity of expert systems. The paper also demonstrates the (well-known) role of Prolog meta-interpreters in building expert system shells.Information Systems Working Papers Serie


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    One of the key challenges in designing expert systems is a credible representation of uncertainty and partial belief. During the past decade, a number of rule-based belief languages were proposed and implemented in applied systems. Due to their quasi-probabilistic nature, the external validity of these languages is an open question. This paper discusses the theory of belief revision in expert systems through a canonical belief calculus model which is invariant across different languages. A meta-interpreter for non-categorical reasoning is then presented. The purposes of this logic model is twofold: first, it provides a clear and concise conceptualization of belief representation and propagation in rule-based systems. Second, it serves as a working shell which can be instantiated with different belief calculi. This enables experiments to investigate the net impact of alternative belief languages on the external validity of a fixed expert system.Information Systems Working Papers Serie

    Tracking Wires on Printed Circuit Boards

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    Work reported herein was conducted at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology research program supported in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the Department of Defense and monitored by the Office of Naval Research under Contract Number N00014-70-A-0362-0005. Vision Flashes are informal papers intended for internal use.This working paper describes a collection of LISP programs written to examine the backs of printed circuit boards. These programs find and trace the conductive wires plated on the insulating material. The "pads", or solder connections between these plated wires and leads from components on the front of the board, are also recognized and located by these programs.MIT Artificial Intelligence Laborator