19,992 research outputs found

    On the zero set of G-equivariant maps

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    Let GG be a finite group acting on vector spaces VV and WW and consider a smooth GG-equivariant mapping f:V→Wf:V\to W. This paper addresses the question of the zero set near a zero xx of ff with isotropy subgroup GG. It is known from results of Bierstone and Field on GG-transversality theory that the zero set in a neighborhood of xx is a stratified set. The purpose of this paper is to partially determine the structure of the stratified set near xx using only information from the representations VV and WW. We define an index s(Σ)s(\Sigma) for isotropy subgroups Σ\Sigma of GG which is the difference of the dimension of the fixed point subspace of Σ\Sigma in VV and WW. Our main result states that if VV contains a subspace GG-isomorphic to WW, then for every maximal isotropy subgroup Σ\Sigma satisfying s(Σ)>s(G)s(\Sigma)>s(G), the zero set of ff near xx contains a smooth manifold of zeros with isotropy subgroup Σ\Sigma of dimension s(Σ)s(\Sigma). We also present a systematic method to study the zero sets for group representations VV and WW which do not satisfy the conditions of our main theorem. The paper contains many examples and raises several questions concerning the computation of zero sets of equivariant maps. These results have application to the bifurcation theory of GG-reversible equivariant vector fields

    Interaction of a Modulated Electron Beam with a Plasma

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    The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the high-frequency interaction of an electron beam with a plasma are reported. An electron beam, modulated at a microwave frequency, passes through a uniform region of a mercury arc discharge after which it is demodulated. Exponentially growing wave amplification along the electron beam was experimentally observed for the first time at a microwave frequency equal to the plasma frequency. Approximate theories of the effects of 1) plasma-electron collision frequencies, 2) plasma-electron thermal velocities and 3) finite beam diameter, are given. In a second experiment the interaction between a modulated electron beam and a slow electrostatic wave on a plasma column has been studied. A strong interaction occurs when the velocity of the electron beam is approximately equal to the velocity of the wave and the interaction is essentially the same as that which occurs in traveling-wave amplifiers, except that here the plasma colum replaces the usual helical slow-wave circuit. The theory predicting rates of growth is presented and compared with the experimental results

    The nature of turbulence in OMC1 at the star forming scale: observations and simulations

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    Aim: To study turbulence in the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC1) by comparing observed and simulated characteristics of the gas motions. Method: Using a dataset of vibrationally excited H2 emission in OMC1 containing radial velocity and brightness which covers scales from 70AU to 30000AU, we present the transversal structure functions and the scaling of the structure functions with their order. These are compared with the predictions of two-dimensional projections of simulations of supersonic hydrodynamic turbulence. Results: The structure functions of OMC1 are not well represented by power laws, but show clear deviations below 2000AU. However, using the technique of extended self-similarity, power laws are recovered at scales down to 160AU. The scaling of the higher order structure functions with order deviates from the standard scaling for supersonic turbulence. This is explained as a selection effect of preferentially observing the shocked part of the gas and the scaling can be reproduced using line-of-sight integrated velocity data from subsets of supersonic turbulence simulations. These subsets select regions of strong flow convergence and high density associated with shock structure. Deviations of the structure functions in OMC1 from power laws cannot however be reproduced in simulations and remains an outstanding issue.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, accepted A&A. Revised in response to referee. For higher resolution, see http://www.astro.phys.au.dk/~maikeng/sim_paper

    Transition Radiation in QCD matter

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    In ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions a finite size QCD medium is created. In this paper we compute radiative energy loss to zeroth order in opacity by taking into account finite size effects. Transition radiation occurs on the boundary between the finite size medium and the vacuum, and we show that it lowers the difference between medium and vacuum zeroth order radiative energy loss relative to the infinite size medium case. Further, in all previous computations of light parton radiation to zeroth order in opacity, there was a divergence caused by the fact that the energy loss is infinite in the vacuum and finite in the QCD medium. We show that this infinite discontinuity is naturally regulated by including the transition radiation.Comment: 21 page, 22 figure

    Observations of spatial and velocity structure in the Orion Molecular Cloud

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    Observations are reported of H2 IR emission in the S(1) v=1-0 line at 2.121 microns in the Orion Molecular Cloud, OMC1, using the GriF instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. GriF is a combination of adaptive optics and Fabry-Perot interferometry, yielding a spatial resolution of 0.15" to 0.18" and a velocity discrimination as high as 1 km/s. Thanks to the high spatial and velocity resolution of the GriF data, 193 bright H2 emission regions can be identified in OMC1. The general characteristics of these features are described in terms of radial velocities, brightness and spatial displacement of maxima of velocity and brightness, the latter to yield the orientation of flows in the plane of the sky. Strong spatial correlation between velocity and bright H2 emission is found and serves to identify many features as shocks. Important results are: (i) velocities of the excited gas illustrate the presence of a zone to the south of BN-IRc2 and Peak 1, and the west of Peak 2, where there is a powerful blue-shifted outflow with an average velocity of -18 km/s. This is shown to be the NIR counterpart of an outflow identified in the radio from source I, a very young O-star. (ii) There is a band of weak velocity features (<5 km/s) in Peak 1 which may share a common origin through an explosive event, in the BN-IRc2 region, with the fast-moving fingers (or bullets) to the NW of OMC1. (iii) A proportion of the flows are likely to represent sites of low mass star formation and several regions show multiple outflows, probably indicative of multiple star formation within OMC1. The high spatial and velocity resolution of the GriF data show these and other features in more detail than has previously been possible.Comment: 27 pages, 19 figures, submitted to A&A Version 2: Several additions, including a section on protostellar candidates in OMC1, have been made based on the referee's suggestions v3: corrected typograph

    Cracks Cleave Crystals

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    The problem of finding what direction cracks should move is not completely solved. A commonly accepted way to predict crack directions is by computing the density of elastic potential energy stored well away from the crack tip, and finding a direction of crack motion to maximize the consumption of this energy. I provide here a specific case where this rule fails. The example is of a crack in a crystal. It fractures along a crystal plane, rather than in the direction normally predicted to release the most energy. Thus, a correct equation of motion for brittle cracks must take into account both energy flows that are described in conventional continuum theories and details of the environment near the tip that are not.Comment: 6 page

    Derivation of the Lorentz Force Law, the Magnetic Field Concept and the Faraday-Lenz Law using an Invariant Formulation of the Lorentz Transformation

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    It is demonstrated how the right hand sides of the Lorentz Transformation equations may be written, in a Lorentz invariant manner, as 4--vector scalar products. This implies the existence of invariant length intervals analogous to invariant proper time intervals. This formalism, making essential use of the 4-vector electromagnetic potential concept, provides a short derivation of the Lorentz force law of classical electrodynamics, the conventional definition of the magnetic field, in terms of spatial derivatives of the 4--vector potential and the Faraday-Lenz Law. An important distinction between the physical meanings of the space-time and energy-momentum 4--vectors is pointed out.Comment: 15 pages, no tables 1 figure. Revised and extended version of physics/0307133 Some typos removed and minor text improvements in this versio
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