204 research outputs found

    Current behavior of a quantum Hamiltonian ratchet in resonance

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    We investigate the ratchet current that appears in a kicked Hamiltonian system when the period of the kicks corresponds to the regime of quantum resonance. In the classical analogue, a spatial-temporal symmetry should be broken to obtain a net directed current. It was recently discovered that in quantum resonance the temporal symmetry can be kept, and we prove that breaking the spatial symmetry is a necessary condition to find this effect. Moreover, we show numerically and analytically how the direction of the motion is dramatically influenced by the strength of the kicking potential and the value of the period. By increasing the strength of the interaction this direction changes periodically, providing us with a non-expected source of current reversals in this quantum model. These reversals depend on the kicking period also, though this behavior is theoretically more difficult to analyze. Finally, we generalize the discussion to the case of a non-uniform initial condition.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Thomas-Fermi generalized approach for studying systems under pressure

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    In a previous work one of the authors proposed a simple model for studying systems under pressure based on the Thomas-Fermi (TF) model of single atom. In this work we intend to extend the previous work to more general Thomas-Fermi models where electronic exchange and correlation are introduced. To do so, we first study numerically the equation obtained by H.W.Lewis (TFDL) which introduces the effects of exchange and correlation into the original TF equation; next the procedure followed in the previous work is extended to the new approach and a specific example is illustrated. Although one could expect that no big differences were produced by the generalized TF model, we show the qualitative as well as quantitative equivalence with detailed numerical results. These results support the robustness of our conclusions with regards to the model proposed in the previous work and give the character of universality (i.e. to pass from one atom to another, the quantities calculated must be simply scaled by a numerical factor) to the properties of compressed systems shown in this work.Comment: 16 pages and 5 figure

    Zitterbewegung of relativistic electrons in a magnetic field and its simulation by trapped ions

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    One-electron 3+1 and 2+1 Dirac equations are used to calculate the motion of a relativistic electron in a vacuum in the presence of an external magnetic field. First, calculations are carried on an operator level and exact analytical results are obtained for the electron trajectories which contain both intraband frequency components, identified as the cyclotron motion, as well as interband frequency components, identified as the trembling motion (Zitterbewegung, ZB). Next, time-dependent Heisenberg operators are used for the same problem to compute average values of electron position and velocity employing Gaussian wave packets. It is shown that the presence of a magnetic field and the resulting quantization of the energy spectrum has pronounced effects on the electron Zitterbewegung: it introduces intraband frequency components into the motion, influences all the frequencies and makes the motion stationary (not decaying in time) in case of the 2+1 Dirac equation. Finally, simulations of the 2+1 Dirac equation and the resulting electron ZB in the presence of a magnetic field are proposed and described employing trapped ions and laser excitations. Using simulation parameters achieved in recent experiments of Gerritsma and coworkers we show that the effects of the simulated magnetic field on ZB are considerable and can certainly be observed.Comment: 19 pages, 9 figures, published versio

    Equilibrium Chemical Engines

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    An equilibrium reversible cycle with a certain engine to transduce the energy of any chemical reaction into mechanical energy is proposed. The efficiency for chemical energy transduction is also defined so as to be compared with Carnot efficiency. Relevance to the study of protein motors is discussed. KEYWORDS: Chemical thermodynamics, Engine, Efficiency, Molecular machine.Comment: 5 pages, late

    Quantum simulation of manybody effects in steady-state nonequilibrium: electron-phonon coupled quantum dots

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    We develop a mapping of quantum steady-state nonequilibrium to an effective equilibrium and solve the problem using a quantum simulation technique. A systematic implementation of the nonequilibrium boundary condition in steady-state is made in the electronic transport on quantum dot structures. This formulation of quantum manybody problem in nonequilibrium enables the use of existing numerical quantum manybody techniques. The algorithm coherently demonstrates various transport behaviors from phonon-dephasing to I-V staircase and phonon-assisted tunneling.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Path Integral Quantization of Cosmological Perturbations

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    We derive the first order canonical formulation of cosmological perturbation theory in a Universe filled by a few scalar fields. This theory is quantized via well-defined Hamiltonian path integral. The propagator which describes the evolution of the initial (for instance, vacuum) state, is calculated.Comment: 16 pages, ETH-TH/94-0

    Interpolating the Nucleon's Spin-Dependent Sum Rules at High and Low Energies

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    I discuss a few interpolating sum rules for spin structure functions of the nucleon. Using the concept of duality, I argue that the G1G_1 sum rule, including the elastic contribution, is useful for learning higher twist matrix elements of the nucleon.Comment: 9 pages in Plain TeX, MIT CTP #220

    BRS and Anti-BRS Symmetry in Topological Yang--Mills Theory

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    We incorporate both BRS symmetry and anti-BRS symmetry into the quantisation of topological Yang--Mills theory. This refines previous treatments which consider only the BRS symmetry. Our formalism brings out very clearly the geometrical meaning of topological Yang--Mills theory in terms of connections and curvatures in an enlarged superspace; and its simple relationship to the geometry of ordinary Yang--Mills theory. We also discover a certain SU(3) triality between physical spacetime, and the two ghost directions of superspace. Finally, we demonstrate how to recover the usual gauge-fixed topological Yang--Mills action from our formalism.Comment: 17 pages, harvmac, DAMTP R92/3

    Fidelity for displaced squeezed states and the oscillator semigroup

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    The fidelity for two displaced squeezed thermal states is computed using the fact that the corresponding density operators belong to the oscillator semigroup.Comment: 3 pages, REVTEX, no figures, submitted to Journal of Physics A, May 5, 199

    Quantum effect in the diffusion along a potential barrier: Comments on the synthesis of superheavy elements

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    We discuss a quantum effect in the diffusion process by developing a theory, which takes the finite curvature of the potential field into account. The transport coefficients of our theory satisfy the well-known fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the limit of Markovian approximation in the cases of diffusion in a flat potential and in a potential well. For the diffusion along a potential barrier, the diffusion coefficient can be related to the friction coefficient by an analytic continuation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the case of diffusion along a potential well in the asymptotic time, but contains strong non-Markovian effects at short times. By applying our theory to the case of realistic values of the temperature, the barrier curvature, and the friction coefficient, we show that the quantum effects will play significant roles in describing the synthesis of superheavy elements, i.e., the evolution from the fusion barrier to the conditional saddle, in terms of a diffusion process. We especially point out the importance of the memory effect, which increases at lower temperatures. It makes the net quantum effects enhance the probability of crossing the conditional saddle.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.
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