1,261 research outputs found

    Development of Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, Capture and Satellite Tagging Protocol in Cook Inlet, Alaska

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    Attempts to capture and place satellite tags on belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska were conducted during late spring and summer of 1995, 1997, and 1999. In 1995, capture attempts using a hoop net proved impractical in Cook Inlet. In 1997, capture efforts focused on driving belugas into nets. Although this method had been successful in the Canadian High Arctic, it failed in Cook Inlet due to the ability of the whales to detect and avoid nets in shallow and very turbid water. In 1999, belugas were successfully captured using a gillnet encirclement technique. A satellite tag was attached to a juvenile male, which subsequently provided the first documentation of this species’ movements within Cook Inlet during the summer months (31 May–17 September)

    The Threatened Status of Steller Sea Lions, Eumetopias jubatus, under the Endangered Species Act: Effects on Alaska Groundfish Fisheries Management

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    In April 1990, the Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus, was listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act by emergency action. Competitive interactions with the billion-dollar Alaska commercial groundfish fisheries have been suggested as one of the possible contributing factors to the Steller sea lion population decline. Since the listing, fisheries managers have attempted to address the potential impacts of the groundfish fisheries on Steller sea lion recovery. In this paper, we review pertinent Federal legislation, biological information on the Steller sea lion decline, changes in the Alaska trawl fishery for walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma, since the late 1970's, andpossible interactions between fisheries and sea lions. Using three cases, we illustrate how the listing of Steller sea lions has affected Alaska groundfish fisheries through: I) actions taken at the time of listing designed to limit the potential for directhuman-related sea lion mortality, 2) actions addressing spatial and temporal separation of fisheries from sea lions, and 3) introduction of risk-adverse stock assessment methodologies and Steller sea lion conservation considerations directly in the annual quota-setting process. This discussion shows some of the ways that North Pacific groundfish resource managers have begun to explicitly consider the conservation ofmarine mammal and other nontarget species

    Synthesis and structural characterisation of bismuth(III) hydroxamates and their activity against Helicobacter pylori

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    Seven new bismuth(III) hydroxamate complexes derived from the hydroxamic acids N-methylfurohydroxamic acid (H-MFHA), N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxamic acid (H-BPHA), salicylhydroxamic acid (H2-SHA), benzohydroxamic acid (H2-BHA), and acetohydroxamic acid (H2-AHA) have been synthesized and characterized. The complexes formed are either tris-hydroxamato complexes containing only mono-anionic ligands, [Bi(H-SHA)3], [Bi(MFHA)3] and [Bi(BPHA)3]; mixed-anion complexes, [Bi(SHA)(H-SHA)] and [Bi(AHA)(H-AHA)]; and potassium bismuthate complexes, K[Bi(SHA)2] and K[Bi(BHA)2]. The solid-state structure of three complexes has been determined through single crystal X-ray diffraction; [Bi(MFHA)3]2·Me2C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, {[Bi(SHA)(H-SHA)(DMSO)2][Bi(SHA)(H-SHA)(DMSO)]·DMSO}∞ and [Bi(BPHA)3]2·2EtOH. All the complexes and their parent acids were assessed for the bactericidal activity against three strains of Helicobacter pylori (26695, B128 and 251). Of the acids, only acetohydroxamic acid showed any activity at low concentrations (MIC 6.25 ÎŒg mL−1; 83.26 ”M) while the others were not toxic below 25 ÎŒg mL−1. In contrast, their bismuth(III) complexes all showed excellent activity across all three strains (e.g. 0.28 ÎŒM for [Bi(H-SHA)3] to 6.01 ÎŒM for K[Bi(BHA)2] against strain 251) with only minor variations in activity being both ligand and composition dependant

    Placing high-redshift quasars in perspective: A catalog of spectroscopic properties from the gemini near infrared spectrograph-distant quasar survey

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    We present spectroscopic measurements for 226 sources from the Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph-Distant Quasar Survey (GNIRS-DQS). Being the largest uniform, homogeneous survey of its kind, it represents a fluxlimited sample (mi≀19.0 mag, H≀16.5 mag) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 1.5 ≀ z ≀ 3.5 with a monochromatic luminosity (λLλ) at 5100 Å in the range of 1044-1046 erg s-1. A combination of the GNIRS and SDSS spectra covers principal quasar diagnostic features, chiefly the C IV λ1549, Mg II λλ2798, 2803, HÎČ Î»4861, and [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission lines, in each source. The spectral inventory will be utilized primarily to develop prescriptions for obtaining more accurate and precise redshifts, black hole masses, and accretion rates for all quasars. Additionally, the measurements will facilitate an understanding of the dependence of rest-frame ultraviolet-optical spectral properties of quasars on redshift, luminosity, and Eddington ratio, and test whether the physical properties of the quasar central engine evolve over cosmic time.Fil: Matthews, Brandon M.. University of North Texas; Estados UnidosFil: Shemmer, Ohad. University of North Texas; Estados UnidosFil: Dix, Cooper. University of North Texas; Estados UnidosFil: Brotherton, Michael S.. University of Wyoming; Estados UnidosFil: Myers, Adam D.. University of Wyoming; Estados UnidosFil: Andruchow, Ileana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Centro CientĂ­fico TecnolĂłgico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de AstrofĂ­sica La Plata. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias AstronĂłmicas y GeofĂ­sicas. Instituto de AstrofĂ­sica La Plata; ArgentinaFil: Brandt, W.N.. State University of Pennsylvania; Estados UnidosFil: Ferrero, Gabriel A.. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias AstronĂłmicas y GeofĂ­sicas; ArgentinaFil: Gallagher, S.C.. The University Of Western Ontario; CanadĂĄFil: Green, Richard. University of Arizona; Estados UnidosFil: Lira, Paulina. Universidad de Chile.; ChileFil: Plotkin, Richard M.. University of Nevada. Deparment of Physics; Estados UnidosFil: Richards, Gordon T.. Drexel University; Estados UnidosFil: Runnoe, Jessie C.. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: Schneider, Donald P.. State University of Pennsylvania; Estados UnidosFil: Shen, Yue. University of Illinois at Urbana; Estados UnidosFil: Strauss, Michael A.. University of Princeton; Estados UnidosFil: Wills, Beverley J.. University of Texas at Austin; Estados Unido

    Loss of gastrokine-2 drives premalignant gastric inflammation and tumor progression

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    Chronic mucosal inflammation is associated with a greater risk of gastric cancer (GC) and, therefore, requires tight control by suppressive counter mechanisms. Gastrokine-2 (GKN2) belongs to a family of secreted proteins expressed within normal gastric mucosal cells. GKN2 expression is frequently lost during GC progression, suggesting an inhibitory role; however, a causal link remains unsubstantiated. Here, we developed Gkn2 knockout and transgenic overexpressing mice to investigate the functional impact of GKN2 loss in GC pathogenesis. In mouse models of GC, decreased GKN2 expression correlated with gastric pathology that paralleled human GC progression. At baseline, Gkn2 knockout mice exhibited defective gastric epithelial differentiation but not malignant progression. Conversely, Gkn2 knockout in the IL-11/STAT3-dependent gp130[superscript F/F] GC model caused tumorigenesis of the proximal stomach. Additionally, gastric immunopathology was accelerated in Helicobacter pylori–infected Gkn2 knockout mice and was associated with augmented T helper cell type 1 (Th1) but not Th17 immunity. Heightened Th1 responses in Gkn2 knockout mice were linked to deregulated mucosal innate immunity and impaired myeloid-derived suppressor cell activation. Finally, transgenic overexpression of human gastrokines (GKNs) attenuated gastric tumor growth in gp130[superscript F/F] mice. Together, these results reveal an antiinflammatory role for GKN2, provide in vivo evidence that links GKN2 loss to GC pathogenesis, and suggest GKN restoration as a strategy to restrain GC progression

    Measurement of inclusive D*+- and associated dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

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    Inclusive photoproduction of D*+- mesons has been measured for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 130 < W < 280 GeV and a photon virtuality Q^2 < 1 GeV^2. The data sample used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 37 pb^-1. Total and differential cross sections as functions of the D* transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are presented in restricted kinematical regions and the data are compared with next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations using the "massive charm" and "massless charm" schemes. The measured cross sections are generally above the NLO calculations, in particular in the forward (proton) direction. The large data sample also allows the study of dijet production associated with charm. A significant resolved as well as a direct photon component contribute to the cross section. Leading order QCD Monte Carlo calculations indicate that the resolved contribution arises from a significant charm component in the photon. A massive charm NLO parton level calculation yields lower cross sections compared to the measured results in a kinematic region where the resolved photon contribution is significant.Comment: 32 pages including 6 figure

    Measurement of Jet Shapes in Photoproduction at HERA

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    The shape of jets produced in quasi-real photon-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies in the range 134−277134-277 GeV has been measured using the hadronic energy flow. The measurement was done with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Jets are identified using a cone algorithm in the η−ϕ\eta - \phi plane with a cone radius of one unit. Measured jet shapes both in inclusive jet and dijet production with transverse energies ETjet>14E^{jet}_T>14 GeV are presented. The jet shape broadens as the jet pseudorapidity (ηjet\eta^{jet}) increases and narrows as ETjetE^{jet}_T increases. In dijet photoproduction, the jet shapes have been measured separately for samples dominated by resolved and by direct processes. Leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo calculations of resolved and direct processes describe well the measured jet shapes except for the inclusive production of jets with high ηjet\eta^{jet} and low ETjetE^{jet}_T. The observed broadening of the jet shape as ηjet\eta^{jet} increases is consistent with the predicted increase in the fraction of final state gluon jets.Comment: 29 pages including 9 figure

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Pathogenic variants in glutamyl-tRNAGln amidotransferase subunits cause a lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy disorder.

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    Mitochondrial protein synthesis requires charging mt-tRNAs with their cognate amino acids by mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, with the exception of glutaminyl mt-tRNA (mt-tRNAGln). mt-tRNAGln is indirectly charged by a transamidation reaction involving the GatCAB aminoacyl-tRNA amidotransferase complex. Defects involving the mitochondrial protein synthesis machinery cause a broad spectrum of disorders, with often fatal outcome. Here, we describe nine patients from five families with genetic defects in a GatCAB complex subunit, including QRSL1, GATB, and GATC, each showing a lethal metabolic cardiomyopathy syndrome. Functional studies reveal combined respiratory chain enzyme deficiencies and mitochondrial dysfunction. Aminoacylation of mt-tRNAGln and mitochondrial protein translation are deficient in patients' fibroblasts cultured in the absence of glutamine but restore in high glutamine. Lentiviral rescue experiments and modeling in S. cerevisiae homologs confirm pathogenicity. Our study completes a decade of investigations on mitochondrial aminoacylation disorders, starting with DARS2 and ending with the GatCAB complex

    Advances, challenges and future directions for stem cell therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative condition where loss of motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord leads to muscle atrophy, weakness, paralysis and ultimately death within 3–5 years from onset of symptoms. The specific molecular mechanisms underlying the disease pathology are not fully understood and neuroprotective treatment options are minimally effective. In recent years, stem cell transplantation as a new therapy for ALS patients has been extensively investigated, becoming an intense and debated field of study. In several preclinical studies using the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS, stem cells were demonstrated to be neuroprotective, effectively delayed disease onset and extended survival. Despite substantial improvements in stem cell technology and promising results in preclinical studies, several questions still remain unanswered, such as the identification of the most suitable and beneficial cell source, cell dose, route of delivery and therapeutic mechanisms. This review will cover publications in this field and comprehensively discuss advances, challenges and future direction regarding the therapeutic potential of stem cells in ALS, with a focus on mesenchymal stem cells. In summary, given their high proliferation activity, immunomodulation, multi-differentiation potential, and the capacity to secrete neuroprotective factors, adult mesenchymal stem cells represent a promising candidate for clinical translation. However, technical hurdles such as optimal dose, differentiation state, route of administration, and the underlying potential therapeutic mechanisms still need to be assessed
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