78 research outputs found

    Simple Technique for source reflection coefficient measurement while characterizing active devices

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    This paper describes a simple, yet rigorous technique for fast and accurate determination of the source reflection coefficient during the characterization of microwave active devices. The solution consists in measuring the waves at the DUT reference plane under two different bias conditions. Since the DUT small signal impedance value depends on the bias voltage, the waves at the DUT input port changes as well. We proved that their measurements give enough information to compute the source reflection coefficient with accuracy suitable for most applications. The correction for systematic errors is based in the traditional error-box model and it does not require any exotic calibration procedures. Experimental results are presented and compared to data obtained with more traditional technique

    Time domain reflectometry applied to MMIC passive component modeling

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    The time domain facilities of a network analyzer, combined with the tools of network synthesis, were recently used for experimental modeling of discontinuities in an S-parameter measurement set, so as to allow the instrument calibration directly to the ports of the device under test. The technique proved to be very useful in those cases where the discontinuities, that lie before the unknown device, cannot be isolated by the usual calibration methods, and therefore, since network synthesis deals only with frequency domain information, it is impossible to optimize the model's parameters, since they are affected by errors due to discontinuities. This paper describes a procedure which allows to isolate the response of the device under test, and to derive its complete model; when it to reach a reasonable accuracy it gives anyway a topology, which is a good starting point for other optimization routines that can be used for obtaining a better match, on a broad frequency band. This can be accomplished by optimzing the first approach topology to which other circuit elements have been added, so as to take into account second order effects especially at the higher frequencies. The technique was applied to model and characterize passive discrete components used in MMIC. The experimental results show the validity of the approac

    Accurate on-wafer power and harmonic measurements of mm-wave amplifiers and devices

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    A novel integrated test system that accurately measures on-wafer S-parameters, power levels, load-pull contours and harmonics over 1 to 50 GHz is presented. The system measures power and S-parameters with single contact measurements and integrated hardware. There are two keys to this system: first, the network analyzer samplers are used as frequency-selective power meters with large dynamic ranges; second, all measurements are vector-corrected to the device under test reference planes. The capabilities and accuracy were demonstrated by measuring the power at the fundamental frequency and four harmonic frequencies of a 50-GHz traveling wave amplifier and the load-pull contours of a MODFET at 30 GH

    A simple NWA calibration algorithm based on a transfer standard

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    A new two-port network analyzer (NWA) calibration technique is here presented. It uses a single two-port transfer standard plus a known reflectance to perform the calibration process. The transfer standard device has to be previously fully characterized with a traceable NWA. The technique here proposed uses less standards than any other up today calibration algorithm, which, on the contrary, requires at least three different devices. The paper presents the calibration algorithm along with some on-wafer experimental results which compare the new solution with a more traditional technique

    In-fixture calibration of an S-parameter measuring system by means of time domain reflectometry

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    We present a technique which resorts to the time domain capabilities of a vector network analyzer and to the network synthesia tools, in order to perform an in-fixture calibration of the S-parameter measurement system directly to the ports of the device under test. The effects of the customer's non ideal fixtures can be removed without requiring the insertion of standard components or particular loads, which can affect the calibration efectiveness. The inaccuracies due to the precision of the actual loads and to the connection repeatability are also avoided. Some simulation reeults demonstrate the very good capability of the technique. Experimental tests were also carried out on an actual microstrip transistor fixture, showing a very satisfactoty launcher modeling and de-embeddin

    Conformal Mapping Design Tools for Coaxial Couplers with Complex Cross Section

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    Numerical conformal mapping is exploited as a simple, accurate, and efficient tool for the analysis and design of coaxial waveguides and couplers of complex cross section. An implementation based on the Schwarz-Christoffel Toolbox, a public-domain MATLAB package, is applied to slotted coaxial cables and to symmetrical coaxial couplers, with circular or polygonal inner conductors and external shields. The effect of metallic diaphragms of arbitrary thickness, partially separating the inner conductors, is also easily taken into account. The proposed technique is validated against the results of the finite-element method, showing excellent agreement at a fraction of the computational cost, and is also extended to the case of nonsymmetrical couplers, providing the designer with important additional degrees of freedom

    Recent Advances in Real-Time Load-Pull Systems

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    In this paper, some of the latest advances in real-time load-pull technologies will be described. A recently introduced ultralow-loss directional coupler, which has been designed and realized by the authors, provides a number of advantages when used in load-pull test sets. This device has been called the load-pull head. The new ultralow-loss load-pull head can transform any passive precalibrated load-pull system into an easily calibrated and accurate real-time load-pull test set, without losing highreflection- coefficient capabilities. Moreover, if used to realize an active loop, the load-pull head reduces the risks of oscillations and the amount of the loop amplifier output power. As an example application, measurements with a passive real-time load-pull setup of a 30-W laterally diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor are presented. Furthermore, some advice to bypass the remaining unavoidable losses due to probes and cables is given.We will show, with measurements and with very simple calculations, that the combined use of load-pull heads, a passive tuner, and an active loop not only boosts the available ΓL but also decreases the loop amplifier output power, with a sensible reduction in the overall cost of the syste
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