40 research outputs found

    O Significado da Segurança na África Austral: Linhas de Orientação

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    Os contornos do actual cenário internacional conduziram a uma redefinição das ameaças e da sua origem, baseada num enquadramentomoldado pelos elementos: legitimidade, integração e capacidade política. O moderno conceito de segurança do estado surge cada vez mais associado ao de segurançaindividual, noção frequentemente subvertida entre os regimes autoritários ou pseudo-democráticos fruto de uma falsa coincidência entre a segurança do estado e da comunidade de cidadãos. A noção de individual associada aos novos conceitos de segurança acentua a importância de elementos como: os direitos humanos, o acesso à saúde, à educação e à alimentação. A satisfação de qualquer um dos elementos afigura-se praticamente inexistente entre a maior parte dos estados africanos, funcionando como factores de desestabilização e de enfraquecimento da coesão nacional. Numa tentativa de instaurar mecanismos de perpetuação de um dado regime político, muitos governos africanos enveredaram por opções no domínio da segurança, que conduziram a um reforço dos aparelhos militares, para-militares e forças presidenciais que actuam como verdadeiros factores de insegurança interna. O autor considera novas fontes de insegurança como: as guerras civis e as lutas internas pela partilha de poder político ou económico; a afirmação étnica de certos grupos; os movimentos separatistas; as tensões fronteiriças; os exércitos privados; fluxos migratórios e a questão das populações deslocadas. Partindo destes pressupostos o artigo examina o significado da segurança na África Austral à luz da democratização, do incremento da participação na democracia; do reforço da integração regional; da necessidade de promoção do desenvolvimento económico e social e dos efeitos da ajuda internacional

    Is the 0.7% goal of ODA/GNI still adequate for the recipients? : An overview of the recipients’ situation with a focus on Africa

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    This paper aims to verify if the international aid target of 0.7% of the rich countries’ national income destined to development aid is still adequate in the current world conditions. Hence, it investigates the target’s origins, the main economic theories and the political context that underpinned it. The theoretical review showed that the economic theories and models that supported the target and its aid rationale are mostly considered outdated in the academic field. The empirical analysis used the Two-Gap Model methodology - with the same assumptions made to create the target in the 1960s but using current data - to estimate the target's values for the years 2014-2019. The results showed that on almost all assumptions, the amount of aid needed for the development of poor countries would be less than the target suggests. Moreover, when analyzing different regions, distinct figures were found for the target, which reveals that the 0.7% target has wrongly generalized the developing countries’ needs.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The topology of african exports : emerging patterns on spanning trees

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    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analyses of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analyses of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodity share network. These networks - together with their corresponding minimal span- ning trees - allow to uncover some ordering emerging from African exports in the broader context of international trade. The emerging patterns help to understand important characteristics of African exports and its binding relations to other economic, geographic and organizational concerns as the recent literature on African trade, development and growth has shown

    Despesas militares e ambiente condicionador na política económica angolana (1975-1992)

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    Angola: janela aberta para o crescimento económico?

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    Depois de um fracassado acordo de paz em 1991, posto em causa imediatamente após as primeiras e únicas eleições legislativas e presidenciais a que o país assistiu (Setembro de 1992), um novo acordo, o memorando de entendimento entre o governo angolano e a Unita (Abril de 2002), parece ter enterrado o espectro de vinte e sete anos de guerra civil que assolou o país

    Pobreza absoluta e desigualdades sociais, ajustamento estrutural e democracia na R.D. São Tomé e Príncipe

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    This article presents the results of an investigation which aimed to measure the degree of poverty of the wage-earning population of São Tomé and Príncipe. After a survey of the economic situation of São Tomé and Príncipe and the structural adjustment policy implemented since 1987, the author examines the social consequences of the country's economic policy, notably the consequences for the distribution of income. This is done by applying a particular methodology in order to determine the proportion of income spent on food. It was found that social inequalities were considerable and the degree of poverty was high, notably in rural areas. The author suggests an alternative food pattern which would rely more on traditional food products. Through the adoption of such an alternative diet, the percentage of the population considered to be in a situation of poverty could decrease. Finally the author discusses the consequences of the structural adjustment programme for the process of democratization in the country.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Stock market and economic growth : evidence from Africa

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    We assessed the impact of stock market development on growth in Africa. It uses annual data from a panel of 9 countries in Africa over the period 1992–2017. Panel Vector Autoregressive econometrics technique is used in data analysis. Our main findings are that stock market development has a positive effect on economic growth. Investment, human capital, and openness also positively influence economic growth in Africa. The inflation and government expenditure affect economic growth negatively. The paper also finds that using the impulse response function, economic growth reacts to the stock market for 8 years and goes back to the initial level.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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