4,426 research outputs found

    Interacting epidemics and coinfection on contact networks

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    The spread of certain diseases can be promoted, in some cases substantially, by prior infection with another disease. One example is that of HIV, whose immunosuppressant effects significantly increase the chances of infection with other pathogens. Such coinfection processes, when combined with nontrivial structure in the contact networks over which diseases spread, can lead to complex patterns of epidemiological behavior. Here we consider a mathematical model of two diseases spreading through a single population, where infection with one disease is dependent on prior infection with the other. We solve exactly for the sizes of the outbreaks of both diseases in the limit of large population size, along with the complete phase diagram of the system. Among other things, we use our model to demonstrate how diseases can be controlled not only by reducing the rate of their spread, but also by reducing the spread of other infections upon which they depend.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Superconducting Superstructure for the TESLA Collider

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    We discuss the new layout of a cavity chain (superstructure) allowing, we hope, significant cost reduction of the RF system of both linacs of the TESLA linear collider. The proposed scheme increases the fill factor and thus makes an effective gradient of an accelerator higher. We present mainly computations we have performed up to now and which encouraged us to order the copper model of the scheme, still keeping in mind that experiments with a beam will be necessary to prove if the proposed solution can be used for the acceleration.Comment: 11 page

    Polars Changing State: Multiwavelength Long Term Photometry and Spectroscopy of QS Tel, V834 Cen, and BL Hyi

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    Long term optical and near-infrared photometric and blue spectroscopic observations were obtained for QS Tel, V834 Cen, and BL Hyi. The optical light curves of all three polars displayed large magnitude changes during our observations. These same high/low state transitions were also apparent in near-infrared JHK photometry, though with decreased amplitude. The color of the polar with respect to its state was examined and found not to be a good indicator of the instantaneous state. During low to high state transitions, a nearly constant magnitude difference was observed in all three polars. This Δ\Deltam value was found to be consistent with the level expected to occur if accretion onto the white dwarf reached the Eddington luminosity during the high state. The high state Balmer decrement was measured for each star and used to estimate that the temperature of the emission line forming region was ~12,000K with NH_H near 12.8 dex. No relationship between the Balmer emission line strength and the white dwarf magnetic field strength was seen, in contrast to a good correlation between these two parameters observed for UV emission lines.Comment: 9 figures, 4 tables; accepted for publication in PAS

    Hydrogen vs. Battery in the long-term operation. A comparative between energy management strategies for hybrid renewable microgrids

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    The growth of the world’s energy demand over recent decades in relation to energy intensity and demography is clear. At the same time, the use of renewable energy sources is pursued to address decarbonization targets, but the stochasticity of renewable energy systems produces an increasing need for management systems to supply such energy volume while guaranteeing, at the same time, the security and reliability of the microgrids. Locally distributed energy storage systems (ESS) may provide the capacity to temporarily decouple production and demand. In this sense, the most implemented ESS in local energy districts are small–medium-scale electrochemical batteries. However, hydrogen systems are viable for storing larger energy quantities thanks to its intrinsic high mass-energy density. To match generation, demand and storage, energy management systems (EMSs) become crucial. This paper compares two strategies for an energy management system based on hydrogen-priority vs. battery-priority for the operation of a hybrid renewable microgrid. The overall performance of the two mentioned strategies is compared in the long-term operation via a set of evaluation parameters defined by the unmet load, storage efficiency, operating hours and cumulative energy. The results show that the hydrogen-priority strategy allows the microgrid to be led towards island operation because it saves a higher amount of energy, while the battery-priority strategy reduces the energy efficiency in the storage round trip. The main contribution of this work lies in the demonstration that conventional EMS for microgrids’ operation based on battery-priority strategy should turn into hydrogen-priority to keep the reliability and independence of the microgrid in the long-term operation
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