1,884 research outputs found

    Interacting epidemics and coinfection on contact networks

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    The spread of certain diseases can be promoted, in some cases substantially, by prior infection with another disease. One example is that of HIV, whose immunosuppressant effects significantly increase the chances of infection with other pathogens. Such coinfection processes, when combined with nontrivial structure in the contact networks over which diseases spread, can lead to complex patterns of epidemiological behavior. Here we consider a mathematical model of two diseases spreading through a single population, where infection with one disease is dependent on prior infection with the other. We solve exactly for the sizes of the outbreaks of both diseases in the limit of large population size, along with the complete phase diagram of the system. Among other things, we use our model to demonstrate how diseases can be controlled not only by reducing the rate of their spread, but also by reducing the spread of other infections upon which they depend.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Religious tourism and seduction: the case of Sacred Mount of Varallo

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    Since 2003 the Sacred Mount of Varallo is included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO because it represents a successful integration of architecture and fine art into a landscape of great beauty for spiritual reasons. As the other Sacred Mounts of Piemonte and Lombardia (Italy), it represents a place in witch all visitors (tourist or pilgrims) couldn\u2019t resist the attraction of and environment full of spiritual and natural seduction. According to these characteristics, the paper aims to define who visits the Sacred Mount of Varallo and which experiences he/she is looking for. In this way we try to understand how a classical religious tourism destination could seduce the third millennium tourist. The research methodology is based both on official statistical data, and on a questionnaire delivered to visitors

    V405 Aurigae: A High Magnetic Field Intermediate Polar

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    Our simultaneous multicolor (UBVRI) circular polarimetry has revealed nearly sinusoidal variation over the WD spin cycle, and almost symmetric positive and negative polarization excursions. Maximum amplitudes are observed in the B and V bands (+-3 %). This is the first time that polarization peaking in the blue has been discovered in an IP, and suggests that V405 Aur is the highest magnetic field IP found so far. The polarized flux spectrum is similar to those found in polars with magnetic fields in the range B ~ 25-50 MG. Our low resolution circular spectropolarimetry has given evidence of transient features which can be fitted by cyclotron harmonics n = 6, 7, and 8, at a field of B = 31.5 +- 0.8 MG, consistent with the broad-band polarized flux spectrum. Timings of the circular polarization zero crossovers put strict upper limits on WD spin period changes and indicate that the WD in V405 Aur is currently accreting closely at the spin equilibrium rate, with very long synchronization timescales, T_s > 10^9 yr. For the observed spin to orbital period ratio, P_{spin}/P_{orb} = 0.0365, and P_{orb} ~ 4.15 hr, existing numerical accretion models predict spin equilibrium condition with B ~ 30 MG if the mass ratio of the binary components is q_1 ~ 0.4. The high magnetic field makes V405 Aur a likely candidate as a progenitor of a polar.Comment: To appear in The Astrophysical Journal, September 1 Issue (2008), 9 pages, 10 figure

    Plasma boosted electron beams for driving Free Electron Lasers

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    In this paper, we report results of simulations, in the framework of both EuPRAXIA \cite{Walk2017} and EuPRAXIA@SPARC\_LAB \cite{Ferr2017} projects, aimed at delivering a high brightness electron bunch for driving a Free Electron Laser (FEL) by employing a plasma post acceleration scheme. The boosting plasma wave is driven by a tens of \SI{}{\tera\watt} class laser and doubles the energy of an externally injected beam up to \GeV{1}. The injected bunch is simulated starting from a photoinjector, matched to plasma, boosted and finally matched to an undulator, where its ability to produce FEL radiation is verified to yield O(\num{e11}) photons per shot at \nm{2.7}.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB: the high-brightness RF photo-injector layout proposal

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    At EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB, the unique combination of an advanced high-brightness RF injector and a plasma-based accelerator will drive a new multi-disciplinary user-facility. The facility, that is currently under study at INFN-LNF Laboratories (Frascati, Italy) in synergy with the EuPRAXIA collaboration, will operate the plasma-based accelerator in the external injection configuration. Since in this configuration the stability and reproducibility of the acceleration process in the plasma stage is strongly influenced by the RF-generated electron beam, the main challenge for the RF injector design is related to generating and handling high quality electron beams. In the last decades of R&D activity, the crucial role of high-brightness RF photo-injectors in the fields of radiation generation and advanced acceleration schemes has been largely established, making them effective candidates to drive plasma-based accelerators as pilots for user facilities. An RF injector consisting in a high-brightness S-band photo-injector followed by an advanced X-band linac has been proposed for the EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB project. The electron beam dynamics in the photo-injector has been explored by means of simulations, resulting in high-brightness, ultra-short bunches with up to 3 kA peak current at the entrance of the advanced X-band linac booster. The EuPRAXIA@SPARC_LAB high-brightness photo-injector is described here together with performance optimisation and sensitivity studies aiming to actual check the robustness and reliability of the desired working point.Comment: 5 pages,5 figures, EAAC201

    The contribution of major risk factors and job strain to occupational class differences in coronary heart disease incidence: the MONICA Brianza and PAMELA population-based cohorts

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    Objectives We investigated the contribution of major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and job strain to occupational class differences in CHD incidence in a pooled-cohort prospective study in northern Italy. Methods 2964 men aged 25-74 from four northern Italian population-based cohorts were investigated at baseline and followed for first fatal or non-fatal CHD event (171 events). Standardised procedures were used for baseline risk factor measurements, follow-up and validation of CHD events. Four occupational classes were derived from the Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero social class scheme: higher and lower professionals and administrators, non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and the self-employed. HRs were estimated with Cox models. Results Among CHD-free subjects, with non-manual workers as the reference group, age-adjusted excess risks were found for professionals and administrators (+84%, p=0.02), the self-employed (+72%, p=0.04) and manual workers (+63%, p=0.04). The relationship was consistent across different CHD diagnostic categories. Adjusting for major risk factors only slightly reduced the reported excess risks. In a sub-sample of currently employed subjects, adjusting for major risk factors, sport physical activity and job strain reduced the excess risk for manual workers (relative change = -71.4%) but did not substantially modify the excess risks of professionals and administrators and the self-employed. Conclusions In our study, we found higher CHD incidence rates for manual workers, professionals and administrators, and the self-employed, compared to non-manual workers. When the entire spectrum of job categories is considered, the job strain model helped explain the CHD excess risk for manual workers but not for other occupational classes

    Simple choreographies of the planar Newtonian NN-body Problem

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    In the NN-body problem, a simple choreography is a periodic solution, where all masses chase each other on a single loop. In this paper we prove that for the planar Newtonian NN-body problem with equal masses, N≥3N \ge 3, there are at least 2N−3+2[(N−3)/2]2^{N-3} + 2^{[(N-3)/2]} different main simple choreographies. This confirms a conjecture given by Chenciner and etc. in \cite{CGMS02}.Comment: 31pages, 6 figures. Refinements in notations and proof

    A burst from the direction of UZ Fornacis with XMM-Newton

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    The XMM-Newton pointing towards the magnetic cataclysmic variable UZ For finds the source to be a factor > 10^3 fainter than previous EXOSAT and ROSAT observations. The source was not detected for the majority of a 22 ksec exposure with the EPIC cameras, suggesting that the accretion rate either decreased, or stopped altogether. However a 1.1 ksec burst was detected from UZ For during the observation. Spectral fits favour optically thin, kT = 4.4 keV thermal emission. Detection of the burst by the on-board Optical Monitor indicates that this was most probably an accretion event. The 0.1-10 keV luminosity of 2.1 x 10^30 erg/s is typical for accretion shock emission from high state polars and would result from the potential energy release of ~ 10^16 g of gas. There is no significant soft excess due to reprocessing in the white dwarf atmosphere.Comment: 7 pages, 2 postscript figures, ApJL, in pres

    Recovery of the old nova V840 Ophiuchi: A carbon rich system

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    We present optical spectroscopy and multi colour photometry of the old nova V840 Oph. We rediscovered the nova based on its position in the colour--colour diagrams. It stands out as a very blue object with an additional red component. We present the first optical spectroscopy of this candidate and confirm its nova character. Furthermore, V840\,Oph has been found as one of very few cataclysmic variables showing C IV emission at lambda = 580/1 nm. From the analysis of the carbon lines it seems probable that V840 Oph contains actually a carbon-rich secondary star. So far, only the nova-like QU Car has been known to have such a companion. We furthermore find spectroscopic evidence that V840 Oph has a hot, dense accretion disc or stream and is probably a magnetic system.Comment: 7 pages, 6 figures, accepted by A&
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