1,560 research outputs found

    Measurement of forward-scatter cross sections in the melting layer

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    Forward scatter cross section measurement in melting layer of snow flake

    The clathrin-binding domain of CALM-AF10 alters the phenotype of myeloid neoplasms in mice.

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    The PICALM (CALM) gene, whose product is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, has been identified in two recurring chromosomal translocations, involving either MLL or MLLT10 (AF10). We developed a mouse model of CALM-AF10(+) leukemia to examine the hypothesis that disruption of endocytosis contributes to leukemogenesis. Exclusion of the C-terminal portion of CALM from the fusion protein, which is required for optimal binding to clathrin, resulted in the development of a myeloproliferative disease, whereas inclusion of this domain led to the development of acute myeloid leukemia and changes in gene expression of several cancer-related genes, notably Pim1 and Crebbp. Nonetheless, the development of leukemia could not be attributed directly to interference with endocytosis or consequential changes in proliferation and signaling. In leukemia cells, full-length CALM-AF10 localized to the nucleus with no consistent effect on growth factor endocyctosis, and suppressed histone H3 lysine 79 methylation regardless of the presence of clathrin. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, we show that CALM-AF10 has a propensity to homo-oligomerize, raising the possibility that the function of endocytic proteins involved in chimeric fusions may be to provide dimerization properties, a recognized mechanism for unleashing oncogenic properties of chimeric transcription factors, rather than disrupting the internalization of growth factor receptors

    When half a word is enough: infants can recognize spoken words using partial phonetic information

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    Adults process speech incrementally, rapidly identifying spoken words on the basis of initial phonetic information sufficient to distinguish them from alternatives. In this study, infants in the second year also made use of word-initial information to understand fluent speech. The time course of comprehension was examined by tracking infants' eye movements as they looked at pictures in response to familiar spoken words, presented both as whole words in intact form and as partial words in which only the first 300 ms of the word was heard. In Experiment 1, 21-month-old infants (N = 32) recognized partial words as quickly and reliably as they recognized whole words; in Experiment 2, these findings were replicated with 18-month-old infants (N = 32). Combining the data from both experiments, efficiency in spoken word recognition was examined in relation to level of lexical development. Infants with more than 100 words in their productive vocabulary were more accurate in identifying familiar words than were infants with less than 60 words. Grouped by response speed, infants with faster mean reaction times were more accurate in word recognition and also had larger productive vocabularies than infants with slower response latencies. These results show that infants in the second year are capable of incremental speech processing even before entering the vocabulary spurt, and that lexical growth is associated with increased speed and efficiency in understanding spoken language

    Infants' developing competence in recognizing and understanding words in fluent speech

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    Again and again in research on early cognitive development, infants turn out to be smarter than we thought they were. The refinement of experimental tech-niques for reading infants ' minds has been extremely productive, enabling us to study developing capabilities which are not yet observable in spontaneous behavior. When the task demands are made simple enough, infants demonstrate implicit knowledge across diverse domains ranging from understanding of the physical world and numerical concepts to social cognition (see Wellman & Gelman 1998). In the domain of language understanding as well, such techniques have been used to reveal the early emergence of linguistic competence before it is evident in overt behavior, and many ingenious experiments have demonstrated the considerable speech processing savvy of infants in the first year. These studies show that certain perceptual skills essential for spoken language under-standing emerge gradually over the first year, often months before infants are able to display their linguistic knowledge through speech production (see Aslin, Jusczyk & Pisoni 1998). Our own recent research on word recognition by olde

    The Value of Comparative Animal Research : Krogh’s Principle Facilitates Scientific Discoveries

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    There are no conflicts of interest to declare. This paper developed from the 2016 Early Career Impact Award from the Federation of Associations in Behavioral & Brain Sciences to TJS. TJS has received funding from The Leverhulme Trust. FJPE is in receipt of funding from the BBSRC (BB/M001555/1). The National Institutes of Health has funded RDF (NS 034950, NS093277, NIMH 087930), AGO (HD079573, IOS-1354760) and AMK (HD081959). BAA is an Arnold O. Beckman postdoctoral fellow.Peer reviewedPostprin

    A preliminary analysis of forward-scatter signals from showers research memorandum no. 5

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    Simultaneous measurements of forward scatter by isolated showers with time lapse photographic records from weather rada

    Freire re-viewed

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    The work of Paulo Freire is associated with themes of oppression and liberation, and his critical pedagogy is visionary in its attempts to bring about social transformation. Freire has created a theory of education that embeds these issues within social relations that center around both ideological and material domination. In this review essay, Sue Jackson explores three books: Freire’s final work Pedagogy of Indignation; Cesar Augusto Rossatto’s Engaging Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of Possibility, which attempts to engage Freire’s pedagogy of possibility; and C.A. Bowers and Frederique Apffel-Marglin’s edited collection Re-thinking Freire, which asks readers to reconsider Freire’s work in light of globalization and environmental crises. Jackson questions the extent to which Freire’s pedagogical approaches are useful to educators as well as to “the oppressed,” and whether challenges to re-think Freire can lead to new kinds of critical pedagogies

    Book Reviews

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    Social Opportunity Causes Rapid Transcriptional Changes in the Social Behaviour Network of the Brain in an African Cichlid Fish

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    Animals constantly integrate external stimuli with their own internal physiological state to make appropriate behavioural decisions. Little is known, however, about where in the brain the salience of these signals is evaluated, or which neural and transcriptional mechanisms link this integration to adaptive behaviours. We used an African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to test the hypothesis that a new social opportunity activates the conserved \u27social behaviour network\u27 (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to regulate social behaviours across vertebrates. We measured mRNA levels of immediate early genes (IEGs) in microdissected brain regions as a proxy for neuronal activation, and discovered that IEGs were higher in all SBN nuclei in males that were given an opportunity to rise in social rank compared to control stable subordinate and dominant individuals. Furthermore, because the presence of sex-steroid receptors is one defining criteria of SBN nuclei, we also tested whether social opportunity or status influenced androgen and oestrogen receptor mRNA levels within these same regions. There were several rapid region-specific changes in receptor mRNA levels induced by social opportunity, most notably in oestrogen receptor subtypes in areas that regulate social aggression and reproduction, suggesting that oestrogenic signalling pathways play an important role in regulating male status. Several receptor mRNA changes occurred in regions with putative homologies to the mammalian septum and extended amygdala, two regions shared by SBN and reward circuits, suggesting an important role in the integration of social salience, stressors, hormonal state and adaptive behaviours. We also demonstrated increases in plasma sex- and stress-steroids at 30 min after a rise in social rank. This rapid endocrine and transcriptional response suggests that the SBN is involved in the integration of social inputs with internal hormonal state to facilitate the transition to dominant status, which ultimately leads to improved fitness for the previously reproductively-suppressed individual. © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology

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