8,292 research outputs found

    The Social Basis of Political Protest: The Wallace Vote in Districts Outside the South

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    Developments in the clinical understanding of osteoarthritis

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    With the recognition that osteoarthritis is a disease of the whole joint, attention has focused increasingly on features in the joint environment which cause ongoing joint damage and are likely sources of pain. This article reviews current ways of assessing osteoarthritis progression and what factors potentiate it, structural abnormalities that probably produce pain, new understandings of the genetics of osteoarthritis, and evaluations of new and old treatments

    Situational Prevention of Organized Timber Theft and Related Corruption

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    "This is an Accepted Manuscript of a book chapter published by Routledge/Willan Publishing in A New Response to Youth Crime in 2011, available online: http://www.routledge.com/9781843927549.” Copyright © 2011 – Willan Publishing (Routledge)Organized theft of timber is a large and significant worldwide enterprise. Corruption in every step of the timber harvesting and selling process involves substantial criminal cooperation, with bribes paid at every stage of the way. The authors review several situational crime prevention measures that could be brought into play. The timber theft example has general significance, offering ideas for preventing criminal enterprise from expanding and for containing public corruption of other processes

    A surplus of positive trials: weighing biases and reconsidering equipoise

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    In this issue, Fries and Krishnan raise provocative new ideas to explain the surfeit of positive industry sponsored trials evaluating new drugs. They suggest that these trials were designed after so much preliminary work that they were bound to be positive (design bias) and that this violates clinical equipoise, which they characterize as an antiquated concept that should be replaced by a focus on subject autonomy in decision making and expected value for all treatments in a trial. We contend that publication bias, more than design bias, could account for the remarkably high prevalence of positive presented trials. Furthermore, even if all new drugs were efficacious, given the likelihood of type 2 errors, not all trials would be positive. We also suggest that clinical equipoise is a nuanced concept dependent on the existence of controversy about the relative value of two treatments being compared. If there were no controversy, then trials would be both unnecessary and unethical. The proposed idea of positive expected value is intriguing, but in the real world such clearly determinable values do not exist. Neither is it clear how investigators and sponsors, who are invested in the success of a proposed therapy, would (or whether they should) develop such a formula

    La théorie des opportunités et l’erreur de généralisation

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    Crime relationships are often inconsistent at different levels of aggregation for good theoretical reasons. That is why we should avoid committing the fallacy of composition, namely, drawing inferences between individuals and aggregates or from one level of aggregation to another. The routine activity approach becomes part of the solution
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