3,246 research outputs found

    Microstructure and chemical composition of Roman orichalcum coins emitted after the monetary reform of Augustus (23 B.C.)

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    A collection of ancient Roman orichalcum coins, i.e., a copper-zinc alloy, minted under the reigns from Caesar to Domitianus, have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). We studied, for the first time, coins emitted by Romans after the reforms of Augustus (23 B.C.) and Nero (63-64 A.D). These coins, consisting of asses, sestertii, dupondii and semisses, were analysed using non- and invasive analyses, aiming to explore microstructure, corrosive process and to acquire quantitative chemical analysis. The results revealed that the coins are characterized by porous external layers, which are affected by dezincification and decuprification processes. As pictured by the X-ray maps, the elemental distribution of Cu and Zn shows patterns of depletion that in some cases penetrate in deep up to 1 mm. The composition of the un-corroded nucleus is a Cu-Zn alloy containing up to 30% of Zn, typical of coins produced via cementation process

    Characterization and digital restauration of XIV-XV centuries written parchments by means of non-destructive techniques. Three case studies

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    Parchment is the primary writing medium of the majority of documents with cultural importance. Unfortunately, this material suffers of several mechanisms of degradation that affect its chemical-physical structure and the readability of text. Due to the unique and delicate character of these objects, the use of nondestructive techniques is mandatory. In this work, three partially degraded handwritten parchments dating back to the XIV-XV centuries were analyzed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, ”-ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and reflectance and UV-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. 'e elemental and molecular results provided the identification of the inks, pigments, and superficial treatments. In particular, all manuscripts have been written with iron gall inks, while the capital letters have been realized with cinnabar and azurite. Furthermore, multispectral UV fluorescence imaging and multispectral VIS-NIR imaging proved to be a good approach for the digital restoration of manuscripts that suffer from the loss of inked areas or from the presence of brown spotting. Indeed, using ultraviolet radiation and collecting the images at different spectral ranges is possible to enhance the readability of the text, while by illuminating with visible light and by collecting the images at longer wavelengths, the hiding effect of brown spots can be attenuated

    Characterization and digital restauration of XIV-XV centuries written parchments by means of non-destructive techniques. Three case studies

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    Parchment is the primary writing medium of the majority of documents with cultural importance. Unfortunately, this material suffers of several mechanisms of degradation that affect its chemical-physical structure and the readability of text. Due to the unique and delicate character of these objects, the use of nondestructive techniques is mandatory. In this work, three partially degraded handwritten parchments dating back to the XIV-XV centuries were analyzed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, ”-ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and reflectance and UV-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. 'e elemental and molecular results provided the identification of the inks, pigments, and superficial treatments. In particular, all manuscripts have been written with iron gall inks, while the capital letters have been realized with cinnabar and azurite. Furthermore, multispectral UV fluorescence imaging and multispectral VIS-NIR imaging proved to be a good approach for the digital restoration of manuscripts that suffer from the loss of inked areas or from the presence of brown spotting. Indeed, using ultraviolet radiation and collecting the images at different spectral ranges is possible to enhance the readability of the text, while by illuminating with visible light and by collecting the images at longer wavelengths, the hiding effect of brown spots can be attenuated

    Remote colorimetric measurements by hyperspectral lidar compared to contact conventional colorimetry

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    Lidars have many applications in different fields, including the field of Cultural Heritage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a scanning hyperspectral lidar prototype developed at ENEA Center of Frascati as a useful tool for colorimetric analysis when samples cannot be studied with standard contact instruments. A certified X-Rite Color-checker sample, consisting of 24 colored blocks with a coordinated colorimetric certificate, was analyzed. In order to obtain colorimetric data from the reflectance spectra, the precepts of the Commission de l'Éclairage were followed and an algorithm was developed to calculate the color difference between the certified values of the Color-checker and commercial and non-commercial spectrophotometers and those obtained by the lidar, confirming this latter as a useful tool for remote colorimetry

    Natural and synthetic pigments used in the pink-red coloration of salmon flesh: methodology of quali-quantitative assessments and sampling results

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    In Europe Atlantic salmon leads the first position in the farmed species contest with more than 763,000t (FES, 2007). In the year 2006, Norway produced alone beyond 603,000t followed by the United Kingdom with 128,000t. In these last years, the demand of organic salmon is gradually increased both in domestic and foreign markets. In these fish the pink-red coloration of flesh is obtained by supplementing the feed with shrimp waste meal. In Italy, Coop Italia since three years has started the commercialization in the context of "prodotti a marchio" of Atlantic salmon farmed following prescriptions reported in terms of specification that prohibits the use of synthetic and GM pigments in the feeds. In collaboration with this supermarket company, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Camerino University carried out the quali-quantitative assessments on the presence of molecules and relative isomers that distinguish the natural carotenoid pigment from the synthetic one. Skinned portion of fillet (10g) were collected from dorsal muscle (retro-cranial, central and caudal region), mixed and homogenized and repeatedly extracted with acetone until they were colourless. The pooled extract were filtered and an aliquot (10ml) was centrifugated (2200xg, 5min). The astaxanthin content in the supernatant was determined by HPLC using a Varian ProStar instrument equipped with UV/vis detector using an external astaxanthin standard at detection wavelength 470nm. Analysis was performed on a Varian Kromasil 100 C 18 250x0.3 mm according to Bjerkeng et al. (1997). Identification and determination of stereoisomers were carried out by means of a Sumichiral a-phenylglicine 250x4.6mm column following Abu-Lafi and Turujman method (1999). The analysis performed on all the organic fish have demonstrated the exclusive content of natural pigment. In this group (b.w.=3.9-4.4kg), C-Card for salmonids ranged between 26±1 in 2004 and 21.5±1.3 in 2005 and 21.5±2.1 in 2006. Astaxanthin and isomers decreased from 5.6±0.3mg/kg in 2004 to 2.9±1.1mg/kg in 2006. The low-cost non organic salmon group (b.w.=4.5-4.6kg) resulted pigmented only with synthetic carotenoids and C-card for salmonids ranged between 27.3 in 2004 and 23.7 in 2005 whereas in 2006 it was observed equal to 27. Also in this batch, astaxanthin and isomers decreased passing from 6.5mg/kg in 2004 to 4.9mg/kg in 2006

    A Nexafs Study of Nitric Oxide Layers Adsorbed from a nitrite Solution onto a Pt(111) Surface

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    NO molecules adsorbed on a Pt(111) surface from dipping in an acidic nitrite solution are studied by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) techniques. LEED patterns and STM images show that no long range ordered structures are formed after NO adsorption on a Pt(111) surface. Although the total NO coverage is very low, spectroscopic features in N K-edge and O K-edge absorption spectra have been singled out and related to the different species induced by this preparation method. From these measurements it is concluded that the NO molecule is adsorbed trough the N atom in an upright conformation. The maximum saturation coverage is about 0.3 monolayers, and although nitric oxide is the major component, nitrite and nitrogen species are slightly co-adsorbed on the surface. The results obtained from this study are compared with those previously reported in the literature for NO adsorbed on Pt(111) under UHV conditions

    The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

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    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Finally, the expected physics performance of the detector is described; estimates rely on numerical simulations and the outcome of the tests described above.Comment: 6 pages, 10 figures, presented at the 2003 IEEE-NSS conference, Portland, OR, USA, October 20-24, 200

    A portable X-ray fluorescence device for in situ analyses of mural paintings

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    Within the context of a research program for studying with nondestructive methods the preparation and realisation techniques of mural paintings used in the Roman age, a portable ED-XRF device for elemental analysis has been set up. Preliminary tests have been carried out on two Roman mural paintings belonging to the Baia Archaeological Complex (Naples). Datable to different periods, the two paintings show different manufacturing and conservation states, thus representing a good test for verifying the ED-XRF device capability. In situ and laboratory measurements, performed on materials of different origin and nature, have permitted the determination of the pigments and the recognition of pollution traces

    A portable X-ray fluorescence device for in situ analyses of mural paintings

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    Within the context of a research program for studying with nondestructive methods the preparation and realisation techniques of mural paintings used in the Roman age, a portable ED-XRF device for elemental analysis has been set up. Preliminary tests have been carried out on two Roman mural paintings belonging to the Baia Archaeological Complex (Naples). Datable to different periods, the two paintings show different manufacturing and conservation states, thus representing a good test for verifying the ED-XRF device capability. In situ and laboratory measurements, performed on materials of different origin and nature, have permitted the determination of the pigments and the recognition of pollution traces
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