748 research outputs found

    The Changing Structure of the Securities Markets and the Securities Industry: Implications for International Securities Regulation

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    This article addresses the impact internationalization has had on the world\u27s securities markets with a particular focus on its role in forcing change in the structure of those markets. Part I describes the forces involved in the internationalization process, and analyzes capital movement and other phenomena that demonstrate the extent of internationalization. Next, it reviews the structural changes that securities markets and the securities industry have made in response to the internationalization process. Part II analyzes the measures regulators have taken to address the implications of those developments. Part III discusses the October Market Break and how it illustrates the interdependence and institutionalization of international securities markets. Part IV suggests that the events of last October have or should have changed our perception of the world and discusses the issues regulators will have to address in order to deal with interdependence, volatility and other characteristics of internationalized capital markets. Part V recommends that regulators respond to these issues by adopting a multilateral approach to certain international securities regulation issues

    iDiary: from GPS signals to a text-searchable diary

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    This paper describes a system that takes as input GPS data streams generated by users' phones and creates a searchable database of locations and activities. The system is called iDiary and turns large GPS signals collected from smartphones into textual descriptions of the trajectories. The system features a user interface similar to Google Search that allows users to type text queries on their activities (e.g., "Where did I buy books?") and receive textual answers based on their GPS signals. iDiary uses novel algorithms for semantic compression (known as coresets) and trajectory clustering of massive GPS signals in parallel to compute the critical locations of a user. Using an external database, we then map these locations to textual descriptions and activities so that we can apply text mining techniques on the resulting data (e.g. LSA or transportation mode recognition). We provide experimental results for both the system and algorithms and compare them to existing commercial and academic state-of-the-art. This is the first GPS system that enables text-searchable activities from GPS data.United States. Office of Naval Research (Grant ONR-MURI Award N00014-12-1-1000)Hon Hai/Foxconn International Holdings Ltd.Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology CenterSingapore. National Research FoundationUnited States. Dept. of Defense. National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship Progra

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative

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    Review on Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-negative, with data on clinics, and the genes involved

    Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma

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    Review on Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, with data on clinics and the genes possibly involved

    Optimal Streaming Algorithms for Submodular Maximization with Cardinality Constraints

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    We study the problem of maximizing a non-monotone submodular function subject to a cardinality constraint in the streaming model. Our main contributions are two single-pass (semi-)streaming algorithms that use O?(k)?poly(1/?) memory, where k is the size constraint. At the end of the stream, both our algorithms post-process their data structures using any offline algorithm for submodular maximization, and obtain a solution whose approximation guarantee is ?/(1+?)-?, where ? is the approximation of the offline algorithm. If we use an exact (exponential time) post-processing algorithm, this leads to 1/2-? approximation (which is nearly optimal). If we post-process with the algorithm of [Niv Buchbinder and Moran Feldman, 2019], that achieves the state-of-the-art offline approximation guarantee of ? = 0.385, we obtain 0.2779-approximation in polynomial time, improving over the previously best polynomial-time approximation of 0.1715 due to [Feldman et al., 2018]. One of our algorithms is combinatorial and enjoys fast update and overall running times. Our other algorithm is based on the multilinear extension, enjoys an improved space complexity, and can be made deterministic in some settings of interest

    Lorenz energy cycle of the global atmosphere based on reanalysis datasets

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    The mean state of the global atmospheric energy cycle is re-examined using the two reanalysis datasets — NCEP2 and ERA40 (1979–2001). The general consistency between the two datasets suggests that the present estimates of the energy cycle are probably the most reliable ones. The comparison between the present and a previous study shows noticeable discrepancies in some of the energy components and conversion rates. The current estimate of the transformations from mean potential energy to mean kinetic energy C(P_M, K_M) further suggests that the near-surface processes play an important role in the conversion rate C(P_M, K_M), along with the Ferrel cell and Hadley cells, which probably change the direction of the conversion rate C(P_M, K_M)

    Kindlin-2 is required for myocyte elongation and is essential for myogenesis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Integrins are required for normal muscle differentiation and disruptions in integrin signaling result in human muscle disease. The intracellular components that regulate integrin function during myogenesis are poorly understood. Unc-112 is an integrin-associated protein required for muscle development in C. elegans. To better understand the intracellular effectors of integrin signaling in muscle, we examined the mammalian homolog of Unc-112, kindlin-2.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Kindlin-2 expression is upregulated during differentiation and highly enriched at sites of integrin localization. RNAi knockdown of kindlin-2 in C2C12 cells results in significant abnormalities during the early stages of myogenesis. Specifically, differentiating myocytes lacking kindlin-2 are unable to elongate and fail to fuse into multinucleated myotubes. These changes are correlated with decreased cell substratum adhesion and increased cell motility. They are also associated with redistribution of a known kindlin-2 binding partner, integrin linked kinase (ILK), to the membrane insoluble subcellular fraction.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In all, our study reveals kindlin-2 as a novel integrin adaptor protein important for muscle differentiation, and identifies it particularly as a critical regulator of myocyte elongation.</p

    Pathogenic Acinetobacter species have a functional type I secretion system and contact-dependent inhibition systems

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    Pathogenic Acinetobacter species, including Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, are opportunistic human pathogens of increasing relevance worldwide. Although their mechanisms of drug resistance are well studied, the virulence factors that governAcinetobacter pathogenesis are incompletely characterized. Here we define the complete secretome of A. nosocomialis strain M2 in minimal medium and demonstrate that pathogenicAcinetobacter species produce both a functional type I secretion system (T1SS) and a contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) system. Using bioinformatics, quantitative proteomics, and mutational analyses, we show that Acinetobacter uses its T1SS for exporting two putative T1SS effectors, an Repeatsin-Toxin (RTX)-serralysin-like toxin, and the biofilm-associated protein (Bap). Moreover, we found that mutation of any component of the T1SS system abrogated type VI secretion activity under nutrient-limited conditions, indicating a previously unrecognized cross-talk between these two systems. We also demonstrate that the Acinetobacter T1SS is required for biofilm formation. Last, we show that both A. nosocomialis and A. baumannii produce functioning CDI systems that mediate growth inhibition of sister cells lacking the cognate immunity protein. The Acinetobacter CDI systems are widely distributed across pathogenicAcinetobacter species, with manyA. baumannii isolates harboring two distinct CDI systems. Collectively, these data demonstrate the power of differential, quantitative proteomics approaches to study secreted proteins, define the role of previously uncharacterized protein export systems, and observe cross-talk between secretion systems in the pathobiology of medically relevant Acinetobacter speciesSubprograma Sara Borrell from the Instituto de Salud Carlos IIISubdirección General de Evaluación y Fomento de la InvestigaciónMinisterio de Economía y Competitividad de España CD14/0001

    The Durban World Congress Ethics Round Table conference report: I. Differences between withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments

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    Introduction: Withholding life-sustaining treatments (WHLST) and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments (WDLST) occur in most intensive care units (ICUs) around the world to varying degrees. Methods: Speakers from invited faculty of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine Congress in 2013 with an interest in ethics were approached to participate in an ethics round table. Participants were asked if they agreed with the statement "There is no moral difference between withholding and withdrawing a mechanical ventilator." Differences between WHLST and WDLST were discussed. Official statements relating to WHLST and WDLST from intensive care societies, professional bodies, and government statements were sourced, documented, and compared. Results: Sixteen respondents stated that there was no moral difference between withholding or withdrawing a mechanical ventilator, 2 were neutral, and 4 stated that there was a difference. Most ethicists and medical organizations state that there is no moral difference between WHLST and WDLST. A review of guidelines noted that all but 1 of 29 considered WHLST and WDLST as ethically or legally equivalent. Conclusions: Most respondents, practicing intensivists, stated that there is no difference between WHLST and WDLST, supporting most ethicists and professional organizations. A minority of physicians still do not accept their equivalency
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