61 research outputs found

    Effect of prognostic factors on survival in multivariable analyses.

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    <p>* Age, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, T stage, N stage, rT stage, rN stage, AC cycles and treatment method in multivariate Cox mode.</p><p>Effect of prognostic factors on survival in multivariable analyses.</p

    Characteristics of patients with residual tumor after completing CCRT.

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    <p>Abbreviations: CCRT = Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy; AC = Adjuvant chemotherapy.</p><p>*Two-sided x<sup>2</sup> test.</p><p>Characteristics of patients with residual tumor after completing CCRT.</p

    Kaplan-Meier survival curves for 155 patients with residual tumors after undergoing CCRT without or with AC.

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    <p>Overall survival (A), failure-free survival (B), local relapse-free survival (C), and distant metastasis-free survival (D). P values were calculated with the unadjusted log-rank test. CCRT = concurrent chemoradiotherapy; AC = adjuvant chemotherapy.</p

    Canolol Inhibits Gastric Tumors Initiation and Progression through COX-2/PGE2 Pathway in K19-C2mE Transgenic Mice

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    <div><p>4-vinyl-2, 6-dimethoxyphenol (canolol) is an antioxidant phenolic compound extracted from crude canola oil. In current research, K19-C2mE transgenic mice, developing hyperplastic tumors spontaneously in the glandular stomach, were used to study the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammation and anti-tumor effects of canolol. Tg mice receiving canolol diet had a reduced tumor incidence, to 41.2%, compared with Non-treatment Tg mice, 77.8% of which had gastric tumor (P=0.002). Besides that, the mean tumor diameter was decreased from 6.5mm to 4.5mm (P<0.001) after canolol administration. COX-2/PGE2 pathway is known to play pivotal role in inflammation-induced gastric tumorigenesis. The neutrophils and lymphocytes infiltration was suppressed significantly, and the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines COX-2, IL-1β and IL-12b were also downregulated in gastric mucosa. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis showed that COX-2, EP2, Gαs and β-catenin, key factors involving in PGE2 signal transduction, were positive staining with higher H scores in Non-treatment Tg mice, while the expressions were suppressed significantly by 0.1% canolol (P<0.001). In addition, tumor-suppressor miR-7 was reactivated after canolol administration, and COX-2 was showed to be a functional target of miR-7 to suppress the tumor progression. In conclusion, canolol could inhibit the gastritis-related tumor initiation and progression, and the suppression effect was correlated with the blocking up of canonical COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathway and might be regulated by miR-7.</p></div

    Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of <i>mTERF</i> Gene Family in Maize

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    <div><p>Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (<i>mTERF</i>) genes comprise a large family with important roles in regulating organelle gene expression. In this study, a comprehensive database search yielded 31 potential <i>mTERF</i> genes in maize (<i>Zea mays</i> L.) and most of them were targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts. Maize <i>mTERF</i> were divided into nine main groups based on phylogenetic analysis, and group IX represented the mitochondria and species-specific clade that diverged from other groups. Tandem and segmental duplication both contributed to the expansion of the <i>mTERF</i> gene family in the maize genome. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes, using microarray data and RNA-seq data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Environmental stimulus experiments revealed differential up or down-regulation expression of maize <i>mTERF</i> genes in seedlings exposed to light/dark, salts and plant hormones, respectively, suggesting various important roles of maize <i>mTERF</i> genes in light acclimation and stress-related responses. These results will be useful for elucidating the roles of <i>mTERF</i> genes in the growth, development and stress response of maize.</p></div

    Structure of maize mTERF protein.

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    <p>(A) Multiple sequence alignment of maize mTERF motifs. Alignment of the conserved maize mTERF motifs was conducted with CLUSTALW2.0, and displayed using GeneDoc with the conserved residue shading mode. The conserved secondary structure was predicted by MINNOU <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094126#pone.0094126-Cao1" target="_blank">[69]</a> and shown under the alignment panel. (B) Sequence representation LOGO derived from multiple sequence alignment of the mTERF motifs and three leucine zipper-like X<sub>3</sub>LX<sub>3</sub> repeats are highlighted. (C) Overlay between human mTERF1 model (PDB 3MVA) and ZmTERF27 structure developed by I-TASSER <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094126#pone.0094126-Zhang1" target="_blank">[42]</a>. The 3D structures of HsmTERF1 and ZmTERF27 proteins are indicated by blue and red stricks, respectively. The matched regions are represented by double red stricks. (D) ZmTERF27 model is displayed in cartoon and nine mTERF motifs are indicated in different colors. (E) Electrostatic surface potential of ZmTERF27. Only basic amino acid residues (histidine, arginine and lysine) and acidic residues (aspartic and glutamic acids) were analyzed and are shown on the surface of ZmTERF27 model in light blue and red, respectively. (F) DNA-binding mode of ZmTERF27. The dsDNA (red) derived from human mitochondrial DNA was predicted to be docked in the groove formed by ZmTERF27 model (blue) using TM-align program <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094126#pone.0094126-Zhang2" target="_blank">[43]</a>.</p

    Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of maize <i>mTERF</i> gene expression under salts and phytohormones.

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    <p>Total RNA was extracted from two-leaf seedlings at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h after exposure to sodium chloride (A), aluminum chloride (B), NAA (C) and ABA (D), respectively. The expression levels were normalized against maize <i>Actin1</i> gene and the expression in the untreated control samples was set as 1 using 2<sup>–ΔΔCT</sup> method <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094126#pone.0094126-Livak1" target="_blank">[75]</a>. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. Asterisk (*) on top of error bar represent the significant difference (α = 0.05, n = 3) compared with control (0 h).</p

    The effects of canolol on the COX-2/PGE2 pathway genes (A) and miR-7 expression (B).

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    <p>The studied genes involved proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12b, IL-1β, IL-6), oxidative responding gene HO-1, PGE2 synthases genes (COX-2, mPGES-1) and Gαs that relays PGE2 signal into cytoplasm. The horizontal bar in B indicates the 1.0 *, P<0.05; * *, P<0.01.</p
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