2 research outputs found

    Online Supplementary Material: Imaging in Endocrine Disorders

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    <p> <strong>Sonography of Normal and Abnormal Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands<br> Andrioli, M. (Rome); Valcavi, R. (Reggio Emilia)</strong> </p><p><em>Video FHR442273_Video01</em> <br> Ultrasonographic appearance of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. </p><p><em> Video FHR442273_Video02<br></em> Mixed nodule in the right thyroid lobe. </p><p><em> Video FHR442273_Video03<br></em>Elastosonographic evaluation of a solid nodule in the right thyroid lobe. </p><p><strong>Hybrid Molecular Imaging in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma <br> Schmidt, D.; Kuwert, T. (Erlangen)</strong> </p><p><em> Video FHR442276_Video01<br></em>SPECT of the cervical region of a patient with iodine-positive mediastinal lymph node metastases of a papillary thyroid carcinoma (see figure 1d–f). </p><p><em>Video FHR442276_Video02<br></em>FDG-PET visualized by a maximum intensity projection (MIP): a patient with a solitary bone metastasis of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the iliac crest. </p><p><em> Video FHR442276_Video03<br></em>FDG-PET visualized by a maximum intensity projection (MIP): a patient with several pulmonal metastases and a solitary bone metastasis, as well as solitary cervical lymph node metastasis of a follicular thyroid carcinoma in the iliac crest. </p><p> <strong>Adrenal Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography<br> McCarthy, C.J.; McDermott, S.; Blake, M.A. (Boston, Mass.)</strong> </p><p><em> Video FHR442213_Video01</em><br>A series of images obtained during cone-beam CT during the right adrenal vein sampling. </p><p><em>Video FHR442213_Video02</em><br>Left adrenal vein sampling in another patient. </p><p><strong>Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Pituitary Adenomas<br> </strong><strong>Buchfelder, M.; Schlaffer, S.-M. (Erlangen)</strong> </p><p><em> Video FHR442228_Video01</em><br>Workflow for intraoperative MR imaging in the ‘brain suite’: when the surgeon believes that he or she has resected the tumor, the upper portion of the head coil is mounted and the patient’s head is draped and rotated into the center of the magnet for intraoperative imaging. On the basis of the results it is then decided whether the procedure can be finished or one has to proceed with further resection. </p><p><em> Video FHR442228_Video01</em><br>Operative situs during transsphenoidal surgery of the same patient as in figure 6. The segmented contours of the adenoma are superimposed into the microsurgical operative field. The right-sided parasellar lesion (yellow) semi-encases the right carotid artery (blue). During tumor resection, the localization of the carotid artery, as displayed by navigation, is confirmed with the laser Doppler and by intraoperative fluorescence angiography. Thus, the localization of structures which by themselves are not visible by direct light is made available to the surgeon. </p><p> <br></p

    The metabolic role of prolactin: systematic review, meta-analysis and preclinical considerations

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    Hyperprolactinemia has been proven to induce hypogonadism and metabolic derangements in both genders, while the consequences of prolactin (PRL) deficiency have been poorly investigated. To systematically review and analyze data from clinical studies focusing on the metabolic consequences of abnormally high prolactin levels (HPRL) and low prolactin levels (LPRL). In addition, data from preclinical studies about underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were summarized and discussed. PRL contributes to providing the correct amount of energy to support the mother and the fetus/offspring during pregnancy and lactation, but it also has a homeostatic role. Pathological PRL elevation beyond these physiological conditions, but also its reduction, impairs metabolism and body composition in both genders, increasing the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events. Hence, hypoprolactinemia should be avoided as much as possible during treatment with dopamine agonists for prolactinomas. Patients with hypoprolactinemia, because of endogenous or iatrogenic conditions, deserve, as those with hyperprolactinemia, careful metabolic assessment.</p