32 research outputs found

    Design and implementation of 30kW 200/900V LCL modular multilevel based DC/DC converter for high power applications

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    This paper presents the design, development and testing of a 30kW, 200V/900V modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC/DC converter prototype. An internal LCL circuit is used to provide voltage stepping and fault tolerance property. The converter comprises two five level MMC based on insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). Due to low number of levels, selective harmonic elimination modulation (SHE) is used, which determines the switching angles in such a way that third harmonic is minimized whereas the fundamental component is a linear function of the modulation index. In addition, instead of using an expensive control board, three commercial control boards are embedded. This is required to implement the sophisticated DC/DC converter control algorithm. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the converter performance in step up and down modes

    Ground-state energy and compressibility of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

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    Two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in the presence of disorder are of interest in connection with the observed metal-insulator transition in such systems. We use density functional theory in its local-spin density approximation (LSDA) to calculate the ground-state energy of a 2D electron system in the presence of remote charged impurities which up on averaging provides disorder. The inverse compressibility calculated from the ground-state energy exhibits a minimum at a critical density controlled by the disorder strength. Our findings are in agreement with experimental results. © World Scientific Publishing Company

    The effect of preoperative aspirin use on postoperative bleeding and perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery

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    Background: We tried to evaluate the clinical outcomes (mortality, postoperative bleeding and perioperative myocardial infarction) of patients who underwent first elective coronary artery bypass grafting and received aspirin during the preoperative period. Methods: The study was a prospective, randomized and single-blinded clinical trial. Two hundred patients were included and divided into two groups. One group received aspirin 80-160 mg, while in the other aspirin was stopped at least seven days before surgery. The primary end-points of the study were in-hospital mortality and hemorrhage-related complications (postoperative blood loss in the intensive care unit, re-exploration for bleeding and red blood cell and non-red blood cell requirements). The secondary end-point was perioperative myocardial infarction. Results: There were no differences in patient characteristics between the aspirin users and non-aspirin users. We found a significant difference between postoperative blood loss (608 ± ± 359.7 ml vs. 483 ± 251.5 ml, p = 0.005) and red blood cell product requirements (1.32 2+ ± 0.97 unit packed cell vs. 0.94 ± 1.02 unit packed cell, p = 0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding platelet requirement and the rate of in-hospital mortality and re-exploration for bleeding. Similarly, we found no significant difference in the incidence of definite and probable perioperative myocardial infarction (p = 0.24 and p = 0.56 respectively) or in-hospital mortality between the two groups. Conclusion: Preoperative aspirin administration increased postoperative bleeding and red blood cell requirements with no effect on mortality, re-exploration rate and perioperative myocardial infarction. We recommend withdrawal of aspirin seven days prior to surgery. Copyright © 2007 Via Medica

    Drug-related mutational patterns in hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse transcriptase proteins from Iranian treatment-Naïve chronic HBV patients

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    Background: Immunomodulators and Nucleotide analogues have been used globally for the dealing of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the development of drug resistance is a major limitation to their long-term effectiveness. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase (RT) protein variations among Iranian chronic HBV carriers who did not receive any antiviral treatments. Materials and Methods: Hepatitis B virus partial RT genes from 325 chronic in active carrier patients were amplified and directly sequenced. Nucleotide/amino acid substitutions were identified compared to the sequences obtained from the database. Results: All strains belonging to genotype D.365 amino-acid substitutions were found. Mutations related to lamivudine, adefovir, telbivudine, and entecavir occurred in (YMDD) 4% (n = 13), (SVQ) 17.23% (n = 56), (M204I/V + L180M) 2.45% (n = 8) and (M204I) 2.76% (n = 9) of patients, respectively. Conclusions: RT mutants do occur naturally and could be found in HBV carriers who have never received antiviral therapy. However, mutations related to drug resistance in Iranian treatment-naïve chronic HBV patients were found to be higher than other studies published formerly. Chronic HBV patients should be monitored closely prior the commencement of therapy to achieve the best regimen option. © 2013, KOWSAR Corp

    Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    BACKGROUND: Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used population estimates from UNPOP, which were not derived in a way that was internally consistent with the estimates of the numbers of deaths in the GBD. The present iteration of the GBD, GBD 2017, improves on previous assessments and provides timely estimates of the mortality experience of populations globally. METHODS: The GBD uses all available data to produce estimates of mortality rates between 1950 and 2017 for 23 age groups, both sexes, and 918 locations, including 195 countries and territories and subnational locations for 16 countries. Data used include vital registration systems, sample registration systems, household surveys (complete birth histories, summary birth histories, sibling histories), censuses (summary birth histories, household deaths), and Demographic Surveillance Sites. In total, this analysis used 8259 data sources. Estimates of the probability of death between birth and the age of 5 years and between ages 15 and 60 years are generated and then input into a model life table system to produce complete life tables for all locations and years. Fatal discontinuities and mortality due to HIV/AIDS are analysed separately and then incorporated into the estimation. We analyse the relationship between age-specific mortality and development status using the Socio-demographic Index, a composite measure based on fertility under the age of 25 years, education, and income. There are four main methodological improvements in GBD 2017 compared with GBD 2016: 622 additional data sources have been incorporated; new estimates of population, generated by the GBD study, are used; statistical methods used in different components of the analysis have been further standardised and improved; and the analysis has been extended backwards in time by two decades to start in 1950. FINDINGS: Globally, 18·7% (95% uncertainty interval 18·4–19·0) of deaths were registered in 1950 and that proportion has been steadily increasing since, with 58·8% (58·2–59·3) of all deaths being registered in 2015. At the global level, between 1950 and 2017, life expectancy increased from 48·1 years (46·5–49·6) to 70·5 years (70·1–70·8) for men and from 52·9 years (51·7–54·0) to 75·6 years (75·3–75·9) for women. Despite this overall progress, there remains substantial variation in life expectancy at birth in 2017, which ranges from 49·1 years (46·5–51·7) for men in the Central African Republic to 87·6 years (86·9–88·1) among women in Singapore. The greatest progress across age groups was for children younger than 5 years; under-5 mortality dropped from 216·0 deaths (196·3–238·1) per 1000 livebirths in 1950 to 38·9 deaths (35·6–42·83) per 1000 livebirths in 2017, with huge reductions across countries. Nevertheless, there were still 5·4 million (5·2–5·6) deaths among children younger than 5 years in the world in 2017. Progress has been less pronounced and more variable for adults, especially for adult males, who had stagnant or increasing mortality rates in several countries. The gap between male and female life expectancy between 1950 and 2017, while relatively stable at the global level, shows distinctive patterns across super-regions and has consistently been the largest in central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia, and smallest in south Asia. Performance was also variable across countries and time in observed mortality rates compared with those expected on the basis of development. INTERPRETATION: This analysis of age-sex-specific mortality shows that there are remarkably complex patterns in population mortality across countries. The findings of this study highlight global successes, such as the large decline in under-5 mortality, which reflects significant local, national, and global commitment and investment over several decades. However, they also bring attention to mortality patterns that are a cause for concern, particularly among adult men and, to a lesser extent, women, whose mortality rates have stagnated in many countries over the time period of this study, and in some cases are increasing

    The Efficacy of Amlodipine and Diltiazem in Cyclosporine Dose Adjustment with Respect to Trough and 2-hour Concentrations in Kidney Transplant Patients

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    Abstract: Background & Aims: Hypertension, hyperuricaemia and nephrotoxicity are some common side-effects of Cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment in renal transplant recipients. Previous studies suggest that Calcium Channel Blockers (CCB) can increase serum level of CsA and may improve graft function in patients receiving CsA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Diltiazem and Amlodipine on cyclosporine dose adjustment with respect to trough and 2-hour concentrations in renal transplant recipients treated with CsA. Methods: This observer-blind randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 renal transplant recipients treated with CsA. Patients received either Amlodipine (5-10mg/day) or Diltiazem (90-180mg/day) for 3 months and were compared with control group receiving no CCB. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Post Hoc and Correlation tests. Results: Diltiazem significantly decreased CsA dosage (20%) from 162.03 ± 40.6 mg/dl to 128.5 ± 25.5 mg/dl (P=0.000) and Amlodipine, too, decreased it to 140.5 ± 22.3 mg/dl (13%) which was significant (P=0.008). Trough concentration in patients who had received Amlodipine were significantly higher than control group (P=0.019). Diltiazem significantly decreased Cholesterol Level (P=0.027) but other parameters were not significantly different between Amlodipine / Diltiazem and control groups. Discussion: Diltiazem and Amlodipine were well tolerated in co-administration with CsA with no adverse effect on graft function and did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. Our findings support that these two CCBs can be used in clinical settings to reduce the administered dose of cyclosporine. Keywords: Cyclosporine, Amlodipine, Diltiazem, Renal transplantatio

    Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia : clinical outcomes and preliminary results of inflammatory response

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    Purpose: Further examination of clinical outcomes and inflammatory response of bacteremic pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is of great interest to enhance the care of patients with pneumococcal CAP. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the Community Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) to compare the time to clinical stability (TCS), length of hospital stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality of hospitalized pneumococcal CAP patients with and without bacteremia. To measure the effect of bacteremia in pneumococcal CAP patients on outcomes, we modeled all-cause in-hospital mortality using a Poisson regression model, and TCS and LOS using Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusted multivariate regression models were also used to predict the probability of occurrence of each of the study outcomes. To investigate the inflammatory response, we measured the plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-\u3b1, interleukin (IL)-1r\u3b1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10], inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-calcitonin (PCT), and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)], and peripheral blood neutrophil responses in 10 patients, 4 bacteremic and 6 non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP, upon admission and every other day during the first 6 days of hospitalization. Functional data were presented as median and standard error of the median (SEM); due to small number of samples no statistical comparisons were performed between groups. Results: From 833 pneumococcal CAP patients, 394 patients (47 %) were bacteremic. Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP were less likely to reach TCS with an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 0.82 (95 % CI 0.69\u20130.97; p = 0.02) and had higher in-hospital mortality with an AHR of 1.63 (95 % CI 1.06\u20132.50, p = 0.026). Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients had a longer LOS than non-bacteremic pneumococcal CAP (p < 0.003). Higher plasma levels of CRP, PCT, and BNP were found in bacteremic than in non-bacteremic patients. The bacteremic group had consistently higher plasma levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The blood neutrophil functional responses were similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions: Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients were significantly associated with higher in-hospital mortality, lower TCS, and longer LOS. HIV-infected patients showed a greater mortality which was not statistically significant. Bacteremic pneumococcal CAP patients had higher levels of biomarkers and systemic cytokines