213 research outputs found

    Public Schools\u27 Pyrrhic Victories Over Parental Rights

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    This article explores the historical roots of parental rights in education, and then demonstrates that Professors Uerling and Strope are quite correct when they declare parental rights in public education to be almost extinct. Next, it examines the stark contrasts between the rights of public school parents and those of parents who choose private and home schooling. Finally, this article suggests that since the constitutionality of educational choice, including choices involving religious schools, has been established beyond any legitimate question, public school advocates and courts should rethink their position concerning parental rights within public education lest they contribute to the demise of the very system which they seek to save from the subversive influence of those committed parents who give both students and tax dollars to the schools

    Fyn-Dependent Gene Networks in Acute Ethanol Sensitivity

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    Studies in humans and animal models document that acute behavioral responses to ethanol are predisposing factor for the risk of long-term drinking behavior. Prior microarray data from our laboratory document strain- and brain region-specific variation in gene expression profile responses to acute ethanol that may be underlying regulators of ethanol behavioral phenotypes. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn has previously been mechanistically implicated in the sedative-hypnotic response to acute ethanol. To further understand how Fyn may modulate ethanol behaviors, we used whole-genome expression profiling. We characterized basal and acute ethanol-evoked (3 g/kg) gene expression patterns in nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventral midbrain (VMB) of control and Fynknockout mice. Bioinformatics analysis identified a set of Fyn-related gene networks differently regulated by acute ethanol across the three brain regions. In particular, our analysis suggested a coordinate basal decrease in myelin-associated gene expression within NAC and PFC as an underlying factor in sensitivity of Fyn null animals to ethanol sedation. An in silico analysis across the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice identified a significant correlation between Fyn expression and a previously published ethanol loss-of-righting-reflex (LORR) phenotype. By combining PFC gene expression correlates to Fyn and LORR across multiple genomic datasets, we identified robust Fyn-centric gene networks related to LORR. Our results thus suggest that multiple system-wide changes exist within specific brain regions of Fynknockout mice, and that distinct Fyn-dependent expression networks within PFC may be important determinates of the LORR due to acute ethanol. These results add to the interpretation of acute ethanol behavioral sensitivity in Fyn kinase null animals, and identifyFyn-centric gene networks influencing variance in ethanol LORR. Such networks may also inform future design of pharmacotherapies for the treatment and prevention of alcohol use disorders

    A Web Application for Self-Monitoring Improves Symptoms in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure

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    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if a Web application that promoted mindfulness of the progress of the chronic disease through self-monitoring improved quality of life in heart failure. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective single-center single-group study. Participants were instructed how to use the Web application and to perform self-monitoring daily for 12 weeks. A comprehensive physical exam, assessment of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), and an evaluation of self-management were performed in person at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Participants consisted of older (mean, 59 years), predominantly female (63%) adults with NYHA class II or III symptoms. NYHA classification (preintervention versus postintervention, 2.5±0.13 versus 2.0±0.13; p=0.0032) and MLHFQ score (55.7±4.6 versus 42.6±5.1, respectively; p=0.0078) improved over 12 weeks of self-monitoring. A trend toward improvement was also demonstrated in weight (preintervention versus postintervention, 209±9.6 pounds versus 207±9.4 pounds; by paired t test, p=0.389), number of times exercised per week (1.29±0.5 versus 2.5±0.6, respectively; p=0.3), and walk distance (572±147 yards versus 845±187 yards, respectively; p=0.119). Jugular venous distention (preintervention versus postintervention, 8.1±0.6?cm versus 6.7±0.3?cm; p=0.083) and peripheral edema (29.2% versus 16.7%, respectively; p=0.375) decreased after 12 weeks of self-monitoring via the Web application. Conclusions: A Web application for self-monitoring heart failure over 12 weeks improved both NYHA classification and MLHFQ score. The trend in improved physical activity and physical exam support these outcomes. The number of patients reporting a sodium-restricted diet increased over the 12 weeks, which may have led to the positive findings.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/140281/1/tmj.2014.0095.pd

    Multiple Insulin Degrading Enzyme Variants Alter In Vitro Reporter Gene Expression

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    The insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) variant, v311 (rs6583817), is associated with increased post-mortem cerebellar IDE mRNA, decreased plasma β-amyloid (Aβ), decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increased reporter gene expression, suggesting that it is a functional variant driving increased IDE expression. To identify other functional IDE variants, we have tested v685, rs11187061 (associated with decreased cerebellar IDE mRNA) and variants on H6, the haplotype tagged by v311 (v10; rs4646958, v315; rs7895832, v687; rs17107734 and v154; rs4646957), for altered in vitro reporter gene expression. The reporter gene expression levels associated with the second most common haplotype (H2) successfully replicated the post-mortem findings in hepatocytoma (0.89 fold-change, p = 0.04) but not neuroblastoma cells. Successful in vitro replication was achieved for H6 in neuroblastoma cells when the sequence was cloned 5′ to the promoter (1.18 fold-change, p = 0.006) and 3′ to the reporter gene (1.29 fold change, p = 0.003), an effect contributed to by four variants (v10, v315, v154 and v311). Since IDE mediates Aβ degradation, variants that regulate IDE expression could represent good therapeutic targets for AD

    Functional Hair Cell Mechanotransducer Channels Are Required for Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity

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    Aminoglycosides (AG) are commonly prescribed antibiotics with potent bactericidal activities. One main side effect is permanent sensorineural hearing loss, induced by selective inner ear sensory hair cell death. Much work has focused on AG's initiating cell death processes, however, fewer studies exist defining mechanisms of AG uptake by hair cells. The current study investigated two proposed mechanisms of AG transport in mammalian hair cells: mechanotransducer (MET) channels and endocytosis. To study these two mechanisms, rat cochlear explants were cultured as whole organs in gentamicin-containing media. Two-photon imaging of Texas Red conjugated gentamicin (GTTR) uptake into live hair cells was rapid and selective. Hypocalcemia, which increases the open probability of MET channels, increased AG entry into hair cells. Three blockers of MET channels (curare, quinine, and amiloride) significantly reduced GTTR uptake, whereas the endocytosis inhibitor concanavalin A did not. Dynosore quenched the fluorescence of GTTR and could not be tested. Pharmacologic blockade of MET channels with curare or quinine, but not concanavalin A or dynosore, prevented hair cell loss when challenged with gentamicin for up to 96 hours. Taken together, data indicate that the patency of MET channels mediated AG entry into hair cells and its toxicity. Results suggest that limiting permeation of AGs through MET channel or preventing their entry into endolymph are potential therapeutic targets for preventing hair cell death and hearing loss

    Streptococcus pneumoniae Clonal Complex 199: Genetic Diversity and Tissue-Specific Virulence

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    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of otitis media and invasive disease. Since introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, there has been an increase in replacement disease due to serotype 19A clonal complex (CC)199 isolates. The goals of this study were to 1) describe genetic diversity among nineteen CC199 isolates from carriage, middle ear, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid, 2) compare CC199 19A (n = 3) and 15B/C (n = 2) isolates in the chinchilla model for pneumococcal disease, and 3) identify accessory genes associated with tissue-specific disease among a larger collection of S. pneumoniae isolates. CC199 isolates were analyzed by comparative genome hybridization. One hundred and twenty-seven genes were variably present. The CC199 phylogeny split into two main clades, one comprised predominantly of carriage isolates and another of disease isolates. Ability to colonize and cause disease did not differ by serotype in the chinchilla model. However, isolates from the disease clade were associated with faster time to bacteremia compared to carriage clade isolates. One 19A isolate exhibited hypervirulence. Twelve tissue-specific genes/regions were identified by correspondence analysis. After screening a diverse collection of 326 isolates, spr0282 was associated with carriage. Four genes/regions, SP0163, SP0463, SPN05002 and RD8a were associated with middle ear isolates. SPN05002 also associated with blood and CSF, while RD8a associated with blood isolates. The hypervirulent isolate's genome was sequenced using the Solexa paired-end sequencing platform and compared to that of a reference serotype 19A isolate, revealing the presence of a novel 20 kb region with sequence similarity to bacteriophage genes. Genetic factors other than serotype may modulate virulence potential in CC199. These studies have implications for the long-term effectiveness of conjugate vaccines. Ideally, future vaccines would target common proteins to effectively reduce carriage and disease in the vaccinated population

    Latent class analysis of sexual health markers among men and women participating in a British probability sample survey.

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    BACKGROUND: Despite known associations between different aspects of sexual health, it is not clear how patterning of adverse sexual health varies across the general population. A better understanding should contribute towards more effective problem identification, prevention and treatment. We sought to identify different clusters of sexual health markers in a general population, along with their socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates. METHODS: Data came from men (N = 5113) and women (N = 7019) aged 16-74 who reported partnered sexual activity in the past year in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, undertaken in 2010-2012. Latent class analysis used 18 self-reported variables relating to adverse sexual health outcomes (STI and unplanned pregnancy, non-volitional sex, and sexual function problems). Correlates included socio-demographics, early debut, alcohol/drug use, depression, and satisfaction/distress with sex life. RESULTS: Four classes were found for men (labelled Good Sexual Health 83%, Wary Risk-takers 4%, Unwary Risk-takers 4%, Sexual Function Problems 9%); six for women (Good Sexual Health 52%, Wary Risk-takers 2%, Unwary Risk-takers 7%, Low Interest 29%, Sexual Function Problems 7%, Highly Vulnerable 2%). Regardless of gender, Unwary Risk-takers reported lower STI/HIV risk perception and more condomless sex than Wary Risk-takers, but both were more likely to report STI diagnosis than Good Sexual Health classes. Highly Vulnerable women reported abortion, STIs and functional problems, and more sexual coercion than other women. Distinct socio-demographic profiles differentiated higher-risk classes from Good Sexual Health classes, with depression, alcohol/drug use, and early sexual debut widely-shared correlates of higher-risk classes. Females in higher-risk classes, and men with functional problems, evaluated their sex lives more negatively than those with Good Sexual Health. CONCLUSIONS: A greater prevalence and diversity of poor sexual health appears to exist among women than men in Britain, with more consistent effects on women's subjective sexual well-being. Shared health and lifestyle characteristics of higher-risk groups suggest widespread benefits of upstream interventions. Several groups could benefit from tailored interventions: men and women who underestimate their STI/HIV risk exposure, women distressed by low interest in sex, and women experiencing multiple adverse outcomes. Distinctive socio-demographic profiles should assist with identification and targeting