61,853 research outputs found

    Unified model of voltage/current mode control to predict saddle-node bifurcation

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    A unified model of voltage mode control (VMC) and current mode control (CMC) is proposed to predict the saddle-node bifurcation (SNB). Exact SNB boundary conditions are derived, and can be further simplified in various forms for design purpose. Many approaches, including steady-state, sampled-data, average, harmonic balance, and loop gain analyses are applied to predict SNB. Each approach has its own merits and complement the other approaches.Comment: Submitted to International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications on December 23, 2010; Manuscript ID: CTA-10-025

    Bifurcation Boundary Conditions for Switching DC-DC Converters Under Constant On-Time Control

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    Sampled-data analysis and harmonic balance analysis are applied to analyze switching DC-DC converters under constant on-time control. Design-oriented boundary conditions for the period-doubling bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation are derived. The required ramp slope to avoid the bifurcations and the assigned pole locations associated with the ramp are also derived. The derived boundary conditions are more general and accurate than those recently obtained. Those recently obtained boundary conditions become special cases under the general modeling approach presented in this paper. Different analyses give different perspectives on the system dynamics and complement each other. Under the sampled-data analysis, the boundary conditions are expressed in terms of signal slopes and the ramp slope. Under the harmonic balance analysis, the boundary conditions are expressed in terms of signal harmonics. The derived boundary conditions are useful for a designer to design a converter to avoid the occurrence of the period-doubling bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation.Comment: Submitted to International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications on August 10, 2011; Manuscript ID: CTA-11-016

    The influence of low-temperature surface induction on evacuation, pump-out hole sealing and thermal performance of composite edge-sealed vacuum insulated glazing

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    Hermeticity of vacuum edge-sealing materials are one of the paramount requirements, specifically, to the evolution of energy-efficient smart windows and solar thermal evacuated flat plate collectors. This study reports the design, construction and performance of high-vacuum glazing fabrication system and vacuum insulated glazing (VIG). Experimental and theoretical investigations for the development of vacuum edgeseal made of Sn-Pb-Zn-Sb-AlTiSiCu composite in the proportion ratio of 56:39:3:1:1 by % (CS-186) are presented. Experimental investigations of the seven constructed VIG samples, each of size 300mm·300mm·4 mm, showed that increasing the hot-plate surface temperatures improved the cavity vacuum pressure whilst expediting the pump-out hole sealing process but also increases temperature induced stresses. Successful pump-out hole sealing process of VIG attained at the hot-plate set point temperature of 50˚C and the approximate cavity pressure of 0.042 Pa was achieved. An experimentally and theoretically validated finite volume model (FVM) was utilised. The centre-of-pane and total thermal transmittance values are calculated to be 0.91 Wm-2K-1 and 1.05 Wm-2K-1, respectively for the VIG. FVM results predicted that by reducing the width of vacuum edge seal and emissivity of coatings the thermal performance of the VIG is improved

    An analysis of spacecraft data time tagging errors

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    An indepth examination of the timing and telemetry in just one spacecraft points out the genesis of various types of timing errors and serves as a guide in the design of future timing/telemetry systems. The principal sources of timing errors are examined carefully and are described in detail. Estimates of these errors are also made and presented. It is found that the timing errors within the telemetry system are larger than the total timing errors resulting from all other sources

    A Monitoring System Based on Behavior Analysis

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    [[abstract]]This paper presents a vision-based infant-monitoring system that adopts an infant behavior analysis approach to reduce infant injuries. In our study, the video camera is set above the crib to capture infant sequences. The system first preprocesses the input sequence to filter out the noise and reduce the effects of lights and shadows. Then, the infant’s head and limbs are detected from the input frames and compared with pre-defined posture maps to select the most similar map. A posture map describes the current infant posture; the selected posture map can be regarded as a node to be linked by the occurrence order to construct a dynamic behavior graph that describes infant behaviour captured over time. If an input posture map does not exist in the dynamic behavior graph, this means that an unexpected situation has occurred and the system would then alert the baby sitter to attend to the infant immediately. A weighted dynamic behavior graph adjustment algorithm is used to accomplish the behavior analysis. Since infants grow very quickly and their growth processes may differ, the dynamic behavior graph should be continuously updated to fit the current behavior of infants. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to perform robustly in real-time.

    The role of nonthermal electrons in the optical continuum of stellar flares

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    We explore the possibility that the continuum emission in stellar flares is powered by nonthermal electrons accelerated during the flares. We compute the continuum spectra from an atmospheric model for a dMe star, AD Leo, at its quiescent state, when considering the nonthermal excitation and ionisation effects by precipitating electron beams. The results show that if the electron beam has an energy flux large enough, the U band brightening and, in particular, the U-B colour are roughly comparable with observed values for a typical large flare. Moreover, for electron beams with a moderate energy flux, a decrease of the emission at the Paschen continuum appears. This can explain at least partly the continuum dimming observed in some stellar flares. Adopting an atmospheric model for the flaring state can further raise the continuum flux but it yields a spectral colour incomparable with observations. This implies that the nonthermal effects may play the chief role in powering the continuum emission in some stellar flares.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, LaTeX (psfigs.sty), to appear in MNRA