55,559 research outputs found

    The basic parameters of gamma-ray-loud blazars

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    We determined the basic parameters, such as the central black hole mass (MM), the boosting factor (or Doppler factor) (δ\delta), the propagation angle (Φ\Phi) and the distance along the axis to the site of γ\gamma-ray production (dd) for 23 γ\gamma-ray-loud blazars using their available variability timescales. In this method, the absorption effect depends on the γ\gamma-ray energy, emission size and property of the accretion disk. Using the intrinsic γ\gamma-ray luminosity as a fraction λ\lambda of the Eddington luminosity, Lγin=λLLedd.L^{in}_{\gamma}=\lambda L_{Ledd.} and the optical depth equal to unity, we can determine the upper limit of the central black hole masses. We found that the black hole masses range between 107M10^{7}M_{\odot} and 109M10^{9}M_{\odot} when λ\lambda = 0.1 and 1.0 are adopted. Since this method is based on gamma-ray emissions and the short time-scale of the sources, it can also be used for central black hole mass determination of high redshift gamma-ray sources. In the case of the upper limit of black hole mass there is no clear difference between BLs and FSRQs, which suggests that the central black hole masses do not play an important role in the evolutionary sequence of blazars.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, 1 table, Accepted by A&

    Fresnel operator, squeezed state and Wigner function for Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian

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    Based on the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we introduce the Fresnel operator for converting Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian into time-independent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian. The Fresnel operator with the parameters A,B,C,D corresponds to classical optical Fresnel transformation, these parameters are the solution to a set of partial differential equations set up in the above mentioned converting process. In this way the exact wavefunction solution of the Schr\"odinger equation governed by the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian is obtained, which represents a squeezed number state. The corresponding Wigner function is derived by virtue of the Weyl ordered form of the Wigner operator and the order-invariance of Weyl ordered operators under similar transformations. The method used here can be suitable for solving Schr\"odinger equation of other time-dependent oscillators.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

    Two-photon transport through a waveguide coupling to a whispering gallery resonator containing an atom and photon-blockade effect

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    We investigate the two-photon transport through a waveguide side-coupling to a whispering-gallery-atom system. Using the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann (LSZ) reduction approach, we present the general formula for the two-photon processes including the two-photon scattering matrices, the wavefunctions and the second order correlation functions of the out-going photons. Based on the exact results of the second order correlation functions, we analyze the quantum statistics behaviors of the out-going photons for two different cases: (a) the ideal case without the inter-modal coupling in the whispering gallery resonator; (b) the case in the presence of the inter-modal coupling which leads to more complex nonlinear behavior. In the ideal case, we show that the system consists of two independent scattering pathways, a free pathway by a cavity mode without atomic excitation, and a "Jaynes-Cummings" pathway described by the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian of a single-mode cavity coupling to an atom. The free pathway does not contribution to correlated two-photon processes. In the presence of intermodal mixing, the system no longer exhibit a free resonant pathway. Instead, both the single-photon and the two photon transport properties depend on the position of the atom. Thus, in the presence of intermodal mixing one can in fact tune the photon correlation properties by changing the position of the atom. Our formalism can be used to treat resonator and cavity dissipation as well.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figure

    Do External Auditors Perform a Corporate Governance Role in Emerging Markets? Evidence from East Asia

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    In emerging markets, the concentration of corporate ownership has created agency conflicts between controlling owners and minority shareholders. Conventional corporate control mechanisms such as boards of directors and takeovers are typically weak in containing the agency problem. This study examines whether external independent auditors could be employed as monitors and as bonding mechanisms to alleviate the agency conflict. Using a broad sample of firms from eight East Asian economies, we document that firms are more likely to employ Big Five auditors when they are more subject to the agency problem imbedded in their ultimate ownership structure. One possible reason that this documented relation between auditor choice and the agency problem is more evident than the inconsistent results using U.S. and U.K. data is that alternative governance mechanisms are limited in East Asia. In addition, among East Asian auditees subject to the agency problem, Big Five auditors charge a higher fee and set a lower audit modification threshold while non-Big Five auditors do not. Taken together, the evidence suggests that Big Five auditors in emerging markets do have a corporate governance role.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/39784/3/wp400.pd