42 research outputs found

    What Does it Matter What I Think? Challenging Teacher-Child Relationships, Perceptions, Power, and Prophecy

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    This study explored Head Start teachers’ mental representations of their relationship with a challenging child. The study describes teacher self reflections about a targeted challenging relationship with a student collected from reflective writing journals. The journals were completed by teachers as a structured reflective writing intervention focused on improving teacher well-being and effectiveness among Head Start teachers. The primary research project considered the efficacy of a reflective writing intervention on improving teacher-child interactions and teacher wellbeing. The current study focuses on the attitudes expressed within the teachers’ reflections in regards to the challenging relationship. This study utilizes interpretive analysis methods to unpack the themes embedded within the teachers’ writing. The initial analysis revealed teacher mental representations characterized by three emerging themes: 1) teachers engaging in self reflection and positive goal setting, engaged; 2) teachers restating vocabulary and expressing how “it would be good if”, avoidant; and 3) teachers focusing on the challenging child’s problems or disinterest in improvement, blaming. This study describes the way that teachers reflect on challenging relationships with students and the themes that emerge when their thoughts are carefully considered. Research asserts the power of teachers’ mental representations to influence their interactions with students and their overall wellbeing. Mental representations, or internal working models, are influence teachers perceptions of interactions and guide their reactions. This study seeks to paint the picture of the challenging teacher-child relationship with the brush strokes of a group of Head Start teachers efforts to improve. The stories of their most challenging relationships and how they perceive them are relevant at a time when teacher efficacy and retention are necessary for progress in early childhood education. These findings and their implications contribute to a timely discussion about the importance of considering how teachers internalize challenging relationships in an effort to support their wellbeing and teacher efficacy

    Makna Bangunan Rumah Adat Lontiok Masyarakat Melayu Kuok: Kajian Semiotik

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    This study aims to explain the form and social meaning of the Lontiok House in Kampar District, Pulau Belimbing Village. The Lontiok house has a unique/traditional architecture because of its patterns and ornaments in the form of carvings so that its splendor can be seen even more. The characteristics and colors of the ornaments of the Lontiok House depict the life and daily personality of the Malay people, which are thick with customs that must be upheld and the Islamic religion which is firmly applied in everyday life. This paper identifies and documents this house as one of the Malay buildings that needs to be maintained and preserved and has a social meaning that is adhered to by the people there. A qualitative research method with a field study approach was used in this study because the research object was directly reviewed in the field. Theories about Malay architecture and Malay building ornaments serve as background knowledge supported by information obtained from literature and field data as well as actors within the scope of research. The results of this study indicate that the existence of the Lontiok House building has its own function, form and meaning related to people’s lives in Pulau Belimbing Village, Kampar District

    Anti mullerian hormone: Ovarian response indicator in young patients receiving long GnRH agonist protocol for ovarian stimulation

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    Objective: Anti Mullerian hormone (AMH) is gaining place as ovarian marker, chiefly in infertility assistance. We explored its correlation with oocytes retrieval after long GnRH agonist protocol for stimulation, in younger and older infertile population.Methods: This retrospective analysis compiled data of 166 females, receiving ICSI treatment from June 2014 to March 2015. Serum FSH, LH, Estadiol, AMH and antral follicle count were assessed. Outcomes were measured as good (5 to 19 oocytes) and bad responders.Results: Higher discriminatory power of AMH (AUROC; 0.771; p \u3c 0.05) was seen in comparison to FSH (0.692; p \u3c 0.05) and AFC (0.690; p \u3c 0.01). AMH reported strongest association with oocyte retrieved (odds ratio of 15.06). Subgroup analysis reported 68.6 % risk of bad response with AMH levels of less than 1.37ng/ml. This association was observed more significant in young infertile patients \u3c35 year of age (r=0.245; p=0.012) versus older population \u3e35 year (r=0.169; p\u3e0.05).Conclusion: Our study reaffirms that serum AMH correlates well with oocytes retrieved, particularly in females younger than 35 years. We suggest incorporation of AMH in baseline assessment of infertile females, who are falsely advised to postpone interventions based on their age and normal FSH levels

    Observed Quality and Consistency of Fifth Graders’ Teacher–Student Interactions: Associations With Feelings, Engagement, and Performance in School

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    This study examined how overall quality and within-day consistency in fifth graders’ teacher-student interactions related to feelings about, engagement, and academic performance in school. Participants were 956 children in a national study. Students who experienced higher quality interactions reported more positive feelings about school, were more engaged, performed better in math and reading, and had more closeness and less conflict with teachers. Independent of overall interaction quality, students who experienced less consistency in their interactions with teachers, whether it was with the same teacher or across teachers, were less engaged and had more teacher-reported conflict. Findings emphasize the separate contributions of both high quality and consistency of teacher–student interactions to students’ success


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    Citrus waste is solid residue that remains after fresh fruits are squeezed for their juices. Pakistan is among the top ten citrus producing countries in the world. Pakistan is contributing 2.16 million tons per annum in fruit waste generation. Fresh food waste is often used locally to feed animals as milk enhancer. When fresh fruit are squeezed, a solid residue is produced which is commonly known as citrus waste. Fresh citrus waste has a natural acidity, but it is still a perishable product due to its high moisture content and soluble sugar. Dehydration method is usually applied for the removal of moisture content up to less than 10 % to increases the shelf life for easy handling and transportation. The present study enables the design of a rotary-hot air dryer having an internal rotating body. The drying efficiency increased with the increase in the internal temperature and the air flow rate in the rotary drum, while the drying efficiency decreases with increasing the drum speed. The drying process provided the optimal results with respect to drying time and Vitamin C concentration. The present designed hot-air dryer provides fundamentals for fruit pulp industry who can easily adopt this technology. This dryer can be installed within pulp industry and waste can be processed at source point. The dehydration process increases the shelf life of citrus fruit waste and it will be available throughout the year around the country. The dehydrated material can enhance the milk quantity of animal

    Potential degradation of norfloxacin using UV-C/Fe2+/peroxides-based oxidative pathways

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    The removal of norfloxacin (NOR), a widely used pharmaceutical and emerging water pollutant, was studied using UV-C and Fe2+ catalyzed peroxides-based oxidative processes (e.g., UV-C/Fe2+/H2O2, UV-C/Fe2+/S2O8 2− and UV-C/Fe2+/HSO5 −) and compared with UV-C and UV-C/Fe2+. The UV-C and UV-C/Fe2+ degraded NOR to 38 and 55%. However, use of peroxides, i.e., H2O2, S2O8 2−, HSO5 − with UV-C and UV-C/Fe2+ promoted NOR %degradation to 75, 83, and 90% using [peroxides]0 = 50 mg/L, [Fe2+]0 = 1 mg/L, and [NOR]0 = 10 mg/L, respectively. The significant impact of peroxides on NOR degradation was due to their decomposition into ●OH and SO4 ●− which showed high activity towards NOR degradation. The ●OH and SO4 ●− formation from peroxides decomposition and their contribution in NOR degradation was verified by different scavenger studies. Among the UV-C/Fe2+/peroxides processes, UV-C/Fe2+/HSO5 − showed better performance. The changing concentrations of peroxides, Fe2+, and NOR affected degradation of NOR. The use of different pH and inorganic anions also influenced NOR degradation. The degradation pathways of NOR were established and analyzed acute as well as chronic toxicities of NOR and its DPs

    Climate resilient development pathways in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region

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    Communities throughout the world face substantial challenges in the face of climate change. This is of particular concern in climate change hotspots, especially where extreme climate effects coincide with large numbers of vulnerable and poor people. The Hindu Kush Himalayan region is one such climate change hotspot. For development to be sustainable in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, interventions need to include choices and actions that improve livelihoods and alleviate poverty, counteract climate change, are inclusive for the most vulnerable and resilient over time. Climate resilient development pathways present an option to bring together these goals, by consolidating climate action and development choices to generate pathways towards sustainable development.UK Government’s Foreign and Commonwealth Development Office (FCDO

    Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries. We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15 000 women with a composite primary endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore increased the sample size from 15 000 to 20 000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283. Findings Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20 060 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (n=10 051) or placebo (n=10 009), of whom 10 036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis. Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10 036 patients vs 191 [1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group vs 127 [1·7%] in the placebo group, RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group vs 351 [3·5%] in the placebo group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group vs 546 [5·5%] in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group. Interpretation Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as possible after bleeding onset. Funding London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Impact of opioid-free analgesia on pain severity and patient satisfaction after discharge from surgery: multispecialty, prospective cohort study in 25 countries

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    Background: Balancing opioid stewardship and the need for adequate analgesia following discharge after surgery is challenging. This study aimed to compare the outcomes for patients discharged with opioid versus opioid-free analgesia after common surgical procedures.Methods: This international, multicentre, prospective cohort study collected data from patients undergoing common acute and elective general surgical, urological, gynaecological, and orthopaedic procedures. The primary outcomes were patient-reported time in severe pain measured on a numerical analogue scale from 0 to 100% and patient-reported satisfaction with pain relief during the first week following discharge. Data were collected by in-hospital chart review and patient telephone interview 1 week after discharge.Results: The study recruited 4273 patients from 144 centres in 25 countries; 1311 patients (30.7%) were prescribed opioid analgesia at discharge. Patients reported being in severe pain for 10 (i.q.r. 1-30)% of the first week after discharge and rated satisfaction with analgesia as 90 (i.q.r. 80-100) of 100. After adjustment for confounders, opioid analgesia on discharge was independently associated with increased pain severity (risk ratio 1.52, 95% c.i. 1.31 to 1.76; P < 0.001) and re-presentation to healthcare providers owing to side-effects of medication (OR 2.38, 95% c.i. 1.36 to 4.17; P = 0.004), but not with satisfaction with analgesia (beta coefficient 0.92, 95% c.i. -1.52 to 3.36; P = 0.468) compared with opioid-free analgesia. Although opioid prescribing varied greatly between high-income and low- and middle-income countries, patient-reported outcomes did not.Conclusion: Opioid analgesia prescription on surgical discharge is associated with a higher risk of re-presentation owing to side-effects of medication and increased patient-reported pain, but not with changes in patient-reported satisfaction. Opioid-free discharge analgesia should be adopted routinely

    Research Commentary: A Rejoinder: A Reflection on the Evolution of a Replication Study

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