1,162 research outputs found

    mTOR-related cell-clearing systems in epileptic seizures, an update

    Get PDF
    Recent evidence suggests that autophagy impairment is implicated in the epileptogenic mechanisms downstream of mTOR hyperactivation. This holds true for a variety of genetic and acquired epileptic syndromes besides malformations of cortical development which are classically known as mTORopathies. Autophagy suppression is sufficient to induce epilepsy in experimental models, while rescuing autophagy prevents epileptogenesis, improves behavioral alterations, and provides neuroprotection in seizure-induced neuronal damage. The implication of autophagy in epileptogenesis and maturation phenomena related to seizure activity is supported by evidence indicating that autophagy is involved in the molecular mechanisms which are implicated in epilepsy. In general, mTOR-dependent autophagy regulates the proliferation and migration of inter-/neuronal cortical progenitors, synapse development, vesicular release, synaptic plasticity, and importantly, synaptic clustering of GABAA receptors and subsequent excitatory/inhibitory balance in the brain. Similar to autophagy, the ubiquitin–proteasome system is regulated downstream of mTOR, and it is implicated in epileptogenesis. Thus, mTOR-dependent cell-clearing systems are now taking center stage in the field of epilepsy. In the present review, we discuss such evidence in a variety of seizure-related disorders and models. This is expected to provide a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying seizure activit

    Potential antidepressant effects of scutellaria baicalensis, hericium erinaceus and rhodiola rosea

    Get PDF
    Recent studies focused on the pharmacology and feasibility of herbal compounds as a potential strategy to target a variety of human diseases ranging from metabolic to brain disorders. Accordingly, bioactive ingredients which are found within a variety of herbal compounds are reported to produce both neuroprotective and psychotropic activities which may help to combat mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances and cognitive alterations. In the present manuscript, we focus on three herbs which appear effective in mitigating anxiety or depression with favourable risk-benefit profiles, namely Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis), Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea). These three traditional folk medicinal herbs target the main biochemical events that are implicated in mental disorders, mimicking, to some extent, the mechanisms of action of conventional antidepressants and mood stabilizers with a wide margin of tolerability. In detail, they rescue alterations in neurotransmitter and neuro-endocrine systems, stimulate neurogenesis and the synthesis of neurotrophic factors, and they counteract oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Albeit the encouraging results that emerge from both experimental and clinical evidence, further studies are needed to confirm and better understand the mental-health promoting, and specifically, the antidepressant effects of these herbs

    Is “Unconsummated Marriage” still an appropriate term? A snapshot of reality

    Get PDF
    The most shared definition of Unconsummated Marriage (UM) refers to “the failure to perform successful sexual intercourse at the beginning of the marriage. UM usually occurs in the first few nights of marriage and so it is frequently referred to as “honeymoon impotence” or “wedding night impotence”. In the Middle-Eastern (MES) and Western (WS) societies, sexuality follows different patterns in terms of meaning and rules. Moreover the evolution of societies all around the world created new contexts and kinds of relationship. This could hamper a correct taxonomy of such sexual dysfunction where a social variable seems crucial. Aim: To analyze and review data on UM all around the world, to understand if in different societies it refers to the same situation. Method: A review of published literature on UM from 1970 to date, was conducted. Results: Substantial difference emerged from MES to WS. In MES, sexuality is allowable only in marriage, while in WS sexuality and relationship are not strongly linked. This could suggest that the term “marriage” is unable to cover the phenomenon in such different countries. Moreover, the average time before the consultation, causal attribution and prevalence are very different in Western and Middle Eastern countries. Conclusion: We found that the term “first attempts dysfunction” could be better used to describe male, female or both difficulties related to ignorance about sexuality or state/performance anxiety. On the other hand over the individual category of sexual dysfunctions, we suggest a new term as “Unconsummated relationship”, where individual difficulties toward sexuality are involved creating a couple’s dysfunction. Keywords: Unconsummated marriage; Honeymoon impotence; White marriage; Vaginismus; Infertilit

    Headquarters Landscape in Austria: An Overview:Study report 2023

    Get PDF
    In this report, we describe the results of our study on the current headquarters (HQ) landscape in Austria. It is based on a data collection combining information from the database “Orbis” (Bureau van Dijk) and other publicly available data from company annual reports and previous reports.This study aims to provide a comprehensive and clear overview of the current landscape of HQs in Austria. This report represents a follow-up study to our report on “Headquarters Landscape in Austria: An Overview” (2022). By analyzing the data, we aim to gain a solid understanding of Austria as an HQ location, highlighting its unique characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses

    Headquarters Landscape in Austria: International HQs:Study report 2023

    Get PDF
    In this report, we describe the results of our study on the current international headquarters (HQ) landscape in Austria.Austria’s economy is characterized by a large number of HQs. In order to foster continuous growth and maintain its competitiveness as an HQ location, Austria cannot rely exclusively on domestic HQs. Instead, Austria should implement strategies to retain existing international HQs and stimulate investments from foreign companies in Austria to attract additional international HQs.This report represents a follow-up study to our report on “Headquarters Landscape in Austria: International HQs” (2022). We deep dive into the international HQ landscape in Austria and describe its main characteristics. The result of the study are equally important for international firm managers who are considering Austria as a potential HQ location, and for policy-makers who aim at retaining existing international HQs in Austria, while attracting new ones

    Poverty and inequality mapping based on a unit-level log-normal mixture model

    Get PDF
    Estimating poverty and inequality parameters for small sub-populations with adequate precision is often beyond the reach of ordinary survey-weighted methods because of small sample sizes. In small area estimation, survey data and auxiliary information are combined, in most cases using a model. In this paper, motivated by the analysis of EU-SILC data for Italy, we target the estimation of a selection of poverty and inequality indicators, that is mean, headcount ratio and quintile share ratio, adopting a Bayesian approach. We consider unit-level models specified on the log transformation of a skewed variable (equivalized income). We show how a finite mixture of log-normals provides a substantial improvement in the quality of fit with respect to a single log-normal model. Unfortunately, working with these distributions leads, for some estimands, to the non-existence of posterior moments whenever priors for the variance components are not carefully chosen, as our theoretical results show. To allow the use of moments in posterior summaries, we recommend generalized inverse Gaussian distributions as priors for variance components, guiding the choice of hyperparameters

    Headquarters Landscape in Austria: International HQs

    Get PDF
    Vienna is at the heart of the Austrian economy, hosting 569 headquarters (HQs). With this study, we deep dive into the Viennese HQ landscape and study its composition as well as characteristics in terms of the types, size, sector, and origin of its HQs. This report is meant to be an addition to our previously published report on “Headquarters Landscape in Austria: An Overview” (2022). Therefore, it focuses on a subsample – represented by the HQ population in Vienna – of the initial database of HQs in Austria. Overall, Vienna emerges as an important hub for the financial sector and the service industry – comprising legal, accounting, management, and consulting activities, among others. Moreover, the HQ population in Vienna is characterized by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but it also hosts a few remarkably large HQs

    Headquarters Landscape in Austria: Vienna HQs:Study report 2023

    Get PDF
    The capital city of Austria, Vienna, is the spearhead of the HQ landscape in Austria, a country that attracts HQs from all over the world, while at the same time supporting the thriving of domestic HQs.Due to the trend of offshoring manufacturing activities, capital cities in Europe are competing to position themselves as attractive locations for HQs. Thanks to its geographical position in-between Western and Eastern Europe, the high quality of its institutions, and its outstanding reputation for quality of life, Vienna has a competitive advantage in this regard.This report represents a follow-up study to our report on “Headquarters Landscape in Austria: Vienna HQs” (2022). We deep dive into the HQ landscape in Vienna and describe its main characteristics. The results of the study are equally important for firm managers who are considering Vienna as a potential HQ location, and for policy-makers who work to strengthen the position of Vienna as an HQ location
    • …