4 research outputs found

    Periplasmic protein thiol:disulfide oxidoreductases of Escherichia coli

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    Disulfide bond formation is part of the folding pathway for many periplasmic and outer membrane proteins that contain structural disulfide bonds. In Escherichia coli, a broad variety of periplasmic protein thiol:disulfide oxidoreductases have been identified in recent years, which substantially contribute to this pathway. Like the well-known cytoplasmic thioredoxins and glutaredoxins, these periplasmic protein thiol:disulfide oxidoreductases contain the conserved C-X-X-C motif in their active site. Most of them have a domain that displays the thioredoxin-like fold. In contrast to the cytoplasmic system, which consists exclusively of reducing proteins, the periplasmic oxidoreductases have either an oxidising, a reducing or an isomerisation activity. Apart from understanding their physiological role, it is of interest to learn how these proteins interact with their target molecules and how they are recycled as electron donors or acceptors. This review reflects the recently made efforts to elucidate the sources of oxidising and reducing power in the periplasm as well as the different properties of certain periplasmic protein thiol:disulfide oxidoreductases of E. col

    Structure of CcmG/DsbE at 1.14 angstrom resolution: High-fidelity reducing activity in an indiscriminately oxidizing environment

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    CcmG is unlike other periplasmic thioredoxin (TRX)like proteins in that it has a specific reducing activity in an oxidizing environment and a high fidelity of interaction. These two unusual properties are required for its role in c-type cytochrome maturation. The crystal structure of CcmG reveals a modified TRX fold with an unusually acidic active site and a groove formed from two inserts in the fold. Deletion of one of the groove-forming inserts disrupts c-type cytochrome formation. Two unique structural features of CcmG-an acidic active site and an adjacent groove-appear to be necessary to convert an indiscriminately binding scaffold, the TRX fold, into a highly specific redox protein