163 research outputs found

    Thoracoscopy in Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma Diagnosis

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    On the basis of our personal experience in 70 cases (66 pleural effusions) observed during the period January 1984- January 1996 we are here illustrating and discussing the diagnostic role of thoracoscopy in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field

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    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the ‘international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques’ at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques

    Measurement results and improvements on an open EPR system

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    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that allows to measure stable radicals induced by ionizing radiation. The EPR measurements can help to estimate the dose absorbed by people exposed during a nuclear disaster, detecting the number of radicals induced in their mobile phones due to the exposition [1]. Using conventional closed microwave cavities, the phone display must be fragmented in order to be introduced inside the resonator, becoming no more usable. The aim of this work is to develop a system, compatible with the spectrometer Bruker Elexys E500, able to preserve the sample integrity. The system uses an X-band resonant metallic cavity with a slit, realized on one side, for the leak of the excitation magnetic field and a Helmotz coil pair. The resonator allows measuring a sample lodged outside the cavity, while the coils produce a 100 kHz modulated field that encodes the output signal at a particular frequency and increases the SNR

    Upgraded Pulsating Heat Pipe Only For Space (U-Phos): Results of the 22nd Rexus Sounding Rocket Campaign

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    A large tube may still behave, to a certain extent, as a capillary in a micro-gravity environment. This very basic concept is here applied to a two-phase passive heat transfer devices in order to obtain a new family of hybrid wickless heat pipes. Indeed, a Loop Thermosyphon, which usually consists of a large tube, closed end to end in a loop, evacuated and partially filled with a working fluid and intrinsically gravity assisted, may become a capillary tube in space condition and turn its thermo-fluidic behavior into a so called Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP), or better, a Space Pulsating Heat Pipe (SPHP). Since the objective of the present work is to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of such a hybrid device, a SPHP has been designed, built, instrumented and tested both on ground and microgravity conditions on the 22nd ESA REXUS Sounding Rocket Campaign. Ground tests demonstrate that the device effectively work as a gravity assisted loop thermosyphon, whether the sounding rocket data clearly reveal a change in the thermal hydraulic behavior very similar to the PHP. Since a microgravity period of approximately 120s is not sufficient to reach a pseudo steady state regime, further investigation on a longer term weightless condition is mandatory

    Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

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    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved
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