1,857 research outputs found

    The rise and fall of countries in the global value chains

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    Countries become global leaders by controlling international and domestic transactions connecting geographically dispersed production stages. We model global trade as a multi-layer network and study its power structure by investigating the tendency of eigenvector centrality to concentrate on a small fraction of countries, a phenomenon called localization transition. We show that the market underwent a significant drop in power concentration precisely in 2007 just before the global financial crisis. That year marked an inflection point at which new winners and losers emerged and a remarkable reversal of leading role took place between the two major economies, the US and China. We uncover the hierarchical structure of global trade and the contribution of individual industries to variations in countries’ economic dominance. We also examine the crucial role that domestic trade played in leading China to overtake the US as the world’s dominant trading nation. There is an important lesson that countries can draw on how to turn early signals of upcoming downturns into opportunities for growth. Our study shows that, despite the hardships they inflict, shocks to the economy can also be seen as strategic windows countries can seize to become leading nations and leapfrog other economies in a changing geopolitical landscape

    Colchicine and amiprophos-methyl (APM) in polyploidy induction in banana plant

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    The objective was to assess the colchicine and amiprophos-methyl (APM) concentration and exposure period in the chromosome duplication of breed banana plants diploids. Banana stem tips were used from the following genotypes: breed diploids (1304-04 [Malaccensis x Madang (Musa acuminata spp. banksii)] and 8694-15 [0337-02 (Calcutta x Galeo) x SH32-63]). Colchicine was used at concentrations of 0 (control treatment), 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mM, while APM was used at 0 (control treatment), 40 and 80 μM, in solution under agitation (20 rpm), for 24 and 48 h periods. With the use of APM, 66.67% tetraploid plants were obtained in the 1304-04 genotype using 40 μM for 24 h and 18.18% in 80 μM for 48 h, while in the 8694-15 genotype using 40 and 80 μM colchicine for 48 h, 27.27 and 21.43% tetraploid plants were observed, respectively. For colchicine, in the 1304-04 genotype, only the 1.25 mM treatment for 48 h presented 25% tetraploid plants and in the 8694-15 genotype, the 5.0 mM concentration for 48 h produced 50% tetraploid plants. APM for 24 h enabled the tetraploid plant of the 1304-04 genotype to be obtained, while colchicine for 48 h resulted in tetraploid plants in the 8694-15 genotype.Key words: Musa acuminata, antimitotic, flow cytometry, tissue culture

    Huntington's Disease Clinical Trials Corner: August 2018

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    In the third edition of the Huntington’s Disease Clinical Trials Corner we list all currently registered and ongoing clinical trials, expand on the SIGNAL trial (NCT02481674), and cover the recently finished CREST-E trial (NCT00712426)

    Analytic and Gevrey Hypoellipticity for Perturbed Sums of Squares Operators

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    We prove a couple of results concerning pseudodifferential perturbations of differential operators being sums of squares of vector fields and satisfying H\"ormander's condition. The first is on the minimal Gevrey regularity: if a sum of squares with analytic coefficients is perturbed with a pseudodifferential operator of order strictly less than its subelliptic index it still has the Gevrey minimal regularity. We also prove a statement concerning real analytic hypoellipticity for the same type of pseudodifferential perturbations, provided the operator satisfies to some extra conditions (see Theorem 1.2 below) that ensure the analytic hypoellipticity

    Study of alkaline hydrothermal activation of belite cements by thermal analysis

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    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal activation of class-C fly ash belite cement was studied using thermal analysis (TG/DTG) by determining the increase in the combined water during a period of hydration of 180 days. The results were compared with those obtained for a belite cement hydrothermally activated in water. The two belite cements were fabricated via the hydrothermal-calcination route of class-C fly ash in 1 M NaOH solution (FABC-2-N) or demineralised water (FABC-2-W). From the results, the effect of the alkaline hydrothermal activation of belite cement (FABC-2-N) was clearly differentiated, mainly at early ages of hydration, for which the increase in the combined water was markedly higher than that of the belite cement that was hydrothermally activated in water. Important direct quantitative correlations were obtained among physicochemical parameters, such as the combined water, the BET surface area, the volume of nano-pores, and macro structural engineering properties such as the compressive mechanical strength

    Perinatal insults and neurodevelopmental disorders may impact Huntington's disease age of diagnosis

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    INTRODUCTION: The age of diagnosis of Huntington's disease (HD) varies among individuals with the same HTT CAG repeat expansion size. We investigated whether early-life events, like perinatal insults or neurodevelopmental disorders, influence the diagnosis age. METHODS: We used data from 13,856 participants from REGISTRY and Enroll-HD, two large international multicenter observational studies. Disease-free survival analyses of mutation carriers with an HTT CAG repeat expansion size above and including 36 were computed through Kaplan-Meier estimates of median time until an HD diagnosis. Comparisons between groups were computed using a Cox proportional hazard survival model adjusted for CAG-repeat expansion length. We also assessed whether the group effect depended on gender and the affected parent. RESULTS: Insults in the perinatal period were associated with an earlier median age of diagnosis of 45.00 years (95%CI: 42.07–47.92) compared to 51.00 years (95%CI: 50.68–51.31) in the reference group, with a CAG-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.61 (95%CI: 1.26–2.06). Neurodevelopmental disorders were also associated with an earlier median age of diagnosis than the reference group of 47.00 years (95% CI: 43.38–50.62) with a CAG-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.42 (95%CI: 1.16–1.75). These associations did not change significantly with gender or affected parent. CONCLUSIONS: These results, derived from large observational datasets, show that perinatal insults and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with earlier ages of diagnosis of magnitudes similar to the effects of known genetic modifiers of HD. Given their clear temporal separation, these early events may be causative of earlier HD onset, but further research is needed to prove causation

    Effects of spatial resolution of terrain models on modelled discharge and soil loss in Oaxaca, Mexico

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    The effect of the spatial resolution of digital terrain models (DTMs) on topography and soil erosion modelling is well documented for low resolutions. Nowadays, the availability of high spatial resolution DTMs from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) opens new horizons for detailed assessment of soil erosion with hydrological models, but the effects of DTM resolution on model outputs at this scale have not been systematically tested. This study combines plot-scale soil erosion measurements, UAV-derived DTMs, and spatially explicit soil erosion modelling to select an appropriate spatial resolution based on allowable loss of information. During 39 precipitation events, sediment and soil samples were collected on five bounded and unbounded plots and four land covers (forest, fallow, maize, and eroded bare land). Additional soil samples were collected across a 220ha watershed to generate soil maps. Precipitation was collected by two rain gauges and vegetation was mapped. A total of two UAV campaigns over the watershed resulted in a 0.60m spatial-resolution DTM used for resampling to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 15m and a multispectral orthomosaic to generate a land cover map. The OpenLISEM model was calibrated at plot level at 1m resolution and then extended to the watershed level at the different DTM resolutions. Resampling the 1m DTM to lower resolutions resulted in an overall reduction in slope. This reduction was driven by migration of pixels from higher to lower slope values; its magnitude was proportional to resolution. At the watershed outlet, 1 and 2m resolution models exhibited the largest hydrograph and sedigraph peaks, total runoff, and soil loss; they proportionally decreased with resolution. Sedigraphs were more sensitive than hydrographs to spatial resolution, particularly at the highest resolutions. The highest-resolution models exhibited a wider range of predicted soil loss due to their larger number of pixels and steeper slopes. The proposed evaluation method was shown to be appropriate and transferable for soil erosion modelling studies, indicating that 4m resolution (<5% loss of slope information) was sufficient for describing soil erosion variability at the study site
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