9,605 research outputs found

    Electrodynamics of superconductors

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    An alternate set of equations to describe the electrodynamics of superconductors at a macroscopic level is proposed. These equations resemble equations originally proposed by the London brothers but later discarded by them. Unlike the conventional London equations the alternate equations are relativistically covariant, and they can be understood as arising from the 'rigidity' of the superfluid wave function in a relativistically covariant microscopic theory. They predict that an internal 'spontaneous' electric field exists in superconductors, and that externally applied electric fields, both longitudinal and transverse, are screened over a London penetration length, as magnetic fields are. The associated longitudinal dielectric function predicts a much steeper plasmon dispersion relation than the conventional theory, and a blue shift of the minimum plasmon frequency for small samples. It is argued that the conventional London equations lead to difficulties that are removed in the present theory, and that the proposed equations do not contradict any known experimental facts. Experimental tests are discussed.Comment: Small changes following referee's and editor's comments; to be published in Phys.Rev.

    Modified Josephson Relation

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    For type II superconductors, Josephson has shown that vortices moving with velocity v_L create an effective electric field E'=-v_L x B. By definition the effective electric field is gradient of the electrochemical potential, what is the quantity corresponding to voltage observed with the use of Ohmic contacts. It relates to the true electric field E via the local chemical potential mu as E'=E - grad(mu)/e. We argue that at low temperatures the true electric field in the bulk can be approximated by a modified Josephson relation E=(v_s-v_L) x B, where v_S is the condensate velocity.Comment: 3 page

    Probing New Physics via an Angular Analysis of B --> V1 V2 decays

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    We show that an angular analysis of B --> V1 V2 decays yields numerous tests for new physics in the decay amplitudes. Unlike direct CP asymmetries, many of these new-physics observables are nonzero even if the strong phase differences vanish. For certain observables, neither time-dependent measurements nor tagging is necessary. Should a signal for new physics be found, one can place a lower limit on the size of the new-physics parameters, as well as on their effect on the measurement of the phase of B0--Bbar0 mixing.Comment: 9 pages, plain latex, no figures. Title modified slightly. Paragraph added about viability of method. Conclusions unchanged. To be published in Europhysics Letter

    Gravitoelectromagnetism and Dark Energy in Superconductors

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    A gravitomagnetic analogue of the London moment in superconductors can explain the anomalous Cooper pair mass excess reported by Janet Tate. Ultimately the gravitomagnetic London moment is attributed to the breaking of the principle of general covariance in superconductors. This naturally implies non-conservation of classical energy-momentum. Possible relation with the manifestation of dark energy in superconductors is questioned.Comment: 10 pages. Poster presented at "From Quantum to Cosmos - Fundamental Physics Research in Space" 22-24 May 2006, To Appear in Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    Spin currents in superconductors

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    It is argued that experiments on rotating superconductors provide evidence for the existence of macroscopic spin currents in superconductors in the absence of applied external fields. Furthermore it is shown that the model of hole superconductivity predicts the existence of such currents in all superconductors. In addition it is pointed out that spin currents are required within a related macroscopic (London-like) electrodynamic description of superconductors recently proposed. The spin current arises through an intrinsic spin Hall effect when negative charge is expelled from the interior of the metal upon the transition to the superconducting state

    Vortex Penetration into a Type II Superconductor due to a Mesoscopic External Current

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    Applying the London theory we study curved vortices produced by an external current near and parallel to the surface of a type II superconductor. By minimizing the energy functional we find the contour describing the hard core of the flux line, and predict the threshold current for entrance of the first vortex. We assume that the vortex entrance is allowed due to surface defects, despite the Bean-Livingston barrier. Compared to the usual situation with a homogeneous magnetic field, the main effect of the present geometry is that larger magnetic fields can be applied locally before vortices enter the superconducting sample. It is argued that this effect can be further enhanced in anisotropic superconductors.Comment: 9 pages, 14 figure

    Can one detect new physics in I=0 and/or I=2 contributions to the decays B --> pi pi?

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    We study the effects of new-physics contributions to B --> pi pi decays, which can be parametrized as four new complex quantities. A simple analysis is provided by utilizing the reparametrization invariance of the decay amplitudes. We find that six quantities can be reabsorbed into the definitions of Standard Model-like parameters. As a result, the usual isospin analysis provides only two constraints on new physics which are independent of estimates for the Standard Model contributions. In particular, we show that one is not sensitive to new physics affecting the I=0 amplitudes. On the other hand, I=2 new physics can be detected, and its parameters can be measured by using independent determinations of the weak phases. We obtain constraints on these new-physics parameters through a fit to the current experimental data.Comment: 8 pages, RevTe

    Measuring Strong and Weak Phases in Time-Independent B Decays

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    Flavor SU(3) symmetry implies certain relations among BB-decay amplitudes to ππ\pi\pi, πK\pi K and KKˉK {\bar K} final states, when annihilation-like diagrams are neglected. Using three triangle relations, we show how to measure the weak CKM phases α\alpha and γ\gamma using time-independent rate measurements only. In addition, one obtains all the strong final-state phases and the magnitudes of individual terms describing tree (spectator), color-suppressed and penguin diagrams. Many independent measurements of these quantities can be made with this method, which helps to eliminate possible discrete ambiguities and to estimate the size of SU(3)-breaking effects.Comment: 2 figures available from the authors upon request, 12 pages,UdeM-LPN-TH-94-19

    Effects of disorder on the vortex charge

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    We study the influence of disorder on the vortex charge, both due to random pinning of the vortices and due to scattering off non-magnetic impurities. In the case when there are no impurities present, but the vortices are randomly distributed, the effect is very small, except when two or more vortices are close by. When impurities are present, they have a noticeable effect on the vortex charge. This, together with the effect of temperature, changes appreciably the vortex charge. In the case of an attractive impurity potential the sign of the charge naturally changes.Comment: 10 pages, 16 figures. Accepted in Phys. Rev.
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