945 research outputs found

    Catalytic addition of CH bonds to multiple bonds

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    Scope and Mechanistic Study of the Coupling Reaction of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds with Alkenes: Uncovering Electronic Effects on Alkene Insertion vs Oxidative Coupling Pathways

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    The cationic ruthenium-hydride complex [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+BF4– (1) was found to be a highly effective catalyst for the intermolecular conjugate addition of simple alkenes to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to give (Z)-selective tetrasubstituted olefin products. The analogous coupling reaction of cinnamides with electron-deficient olefins led to the oxidative coupling of two olefinic C–H bonds in forming (E)-selective diene products. The intramolecular version of the coupling reaction efficiently produced indene and bicyclic fulvene derivatives. The empirical rate law for the coupling reaction of ethyl cinnamate with propene was determined as follows: rate = k[1]1[propene]0[cinnamate]−1. A negligible deuterium kinetic isotope effect (kH/kD = 1.1 ± 0.1) was measured from both (E)-C6H5CH═C(CH3)CONHCH3 and (E)-C6H5CD═C(CH3)CONHCH3 with styrene. In contrast, a significant normal isotope effect (kH/kD = 1.7 ± 0.1) was observed from the reaction of (E)-C6H5CH═C(CH3)CONHCH3 with styrene and styrene-d8. A pronounced carbon isotope effect was measured from the coupling reaction of (E)-C6H5CH═CHCO2Et with propene (13C(recovered)/13C(virgin) at Cβ = 1.019(6)), while a negligible carbon isotope effect (13C(recovered)/13C(virgin) at Cβ = 0.999(4)) was obtained from the reaction of (E)-C6H5CH═C(CH3)CONHCH3 with styrene. Hammett plots from the correlation of para-substituted p-X-C6H4CH═CHCO2Et (X = OCH3, CH3, H, F, Cl, CO2Me, CF3) with propene and from the treatment of (E)-C6H5CH═CHCO2Et with a series of para-substituted styrenes p-Y-C6H4CH═CH2 (Y = OCH3, CH3, H, F, Cl, CF3) gave the positive slopes for both cases (ρ = +1.1 ± 0.1 and +1.5 ± 0.1, respectively). Eyring analysis of the coupling reaction led to the thermodynamic parameters, ΔH⧧ = 20 ± 2 kcal mol–1 and ΔS⧧ = −42 ± 5 eu. Two separate mechanistic pathways for the coupling reaction have been proposed on the basis of these kinetic and spectroscopic studies

    Charge Order with Structural Distortion in Organic Conductors: Comparison between \theta-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4 and \alpha-(ET)2I3

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    Charge ordering with structural distortion in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors \theta-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4 (ET=BEDT-TTF) and \alpha-(ET)2I3 is investigated theoretically. By using the Hartree-Fock approximation for an extended Hubbard model which includes both on-site and intersite Coulomb interactions together with Peierls-type electron-lattice couplings, we examine the role of lattice degrees of freedom on charge order. It is found that the experimentally observed, horizontal charge order is stabilized by lattice distortion in both compounds. In particular, the lattice effect is crucial to the realization of the charge order in \theta-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4, while the peculiar band structure whose symmetry is lower than that of \theta-(ET)2RbZn(SCN)4 in the metallic phase is also an important factor in \alpha-(ET)2I3 together with the lattice distortion. For \alpha-(ET)2I3, we obtain a phase transition from a charge-disproportionated metallic phase to the horizontal charge order with lattice modulations, which is consistent with the latest X-ray experimental result.Comment: 10 pages, 13 figures, to appear in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. Vol. 77 (2008) No.

    Finite-Temperature Properties across the Charge Ordering Transition -- Combined Bosonization, Renormalization Group, and Numerical Methods

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    We theoretically describe the charge ordering (CO) metal-insulator transition based on a quasi-one-dimensional extended Hubbard model, and investigate the finite temperature (TT) properties across the transition temperature, TCOT_{\rm CO}. In order to calculate TT dependence of physical quantities such as the spin susceptibility and the electrical resistivity, both above and below TCOT_{\rm CO}, a theoretical scheme is developed which combines analytical methods with numerical calculations. We take advantage of the renormalization group equations derived from the effective bosonized Hamiltonian, where Lanczos exact diagonalization data are chosen as initial parameters, while the CO order parameter at finite-TT is determined by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the spin susceptibility does not show a steep singularity at TCOT_{\rm CO}, and it slightly increases compared to the case without CO because of the suppression of the spin velocity. In contrast, the resistivity exhibits a sudden increase at TCOT_{\rm CO}, below which a characteristic TT dependence is observed. We also compare our results with experiments on molecular conductors as well as transition metal oxides showing CO.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figure

    Direct Functionalization of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh-Catalyzed C−H Bond Activation

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    Nitrogen heterocycles are present in many compounds of enormous practical importance, ranging from pharmaceutical agents and biological probes to electroactive materials. Direct functionalization of nitrogen heterocycles through C−H bond activation constitutes a powerful means of regioselectively introducing a variety of substituents with diverse functional groups onto the heterocycle scaffold. Working together, our two groups have developed a family of Rh-catalyzed heterocycle alkylation and arylation reactions that are notable for their high level of functional-group compatibility. This Account describes our work in this area, emphasizing the relevant mechanistic insights that enabled synthetic advances and distinguished the resulting transformations from other methods. We initially discovered an intramolecular Rh-catalyzed C-2 alkylation of azoles by alkenyl groups. That reaction provided access to a number of di-, tri-, and tetracyclic azole derivatives. We then developed conditions that exploited microwave heating to expedite these reactions. While investigating the mechanism of this transformation, we discovered that a novel substrate-derived Rh−N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex was involved as an intermediate. We then synthesized analogous Rh−NHC complexes directly by treating precursors to the intermediate [RhCl(PCy3)2] with N-methylbenzimidazole, 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, and 1-methyl-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. Extensive kinetic analysis and DFT calculations supported a mechanism for carbene formation in which the catalytically active RhCl(PCy3)2 fragment coordinates to the heterocycle before intramolecular activation of the C−H bond occurs. The resulting Rh−H intermediate ultimately tautomerizes to the observed carbene complex. With this mechanistic information and the discovery that acid cocatalysts accelerate the alkylation, we developed conditions that efficiently and intermolecularly alkylate a variety of heterocycles, including azoles, azolines, dihydroquinazolines, pyridines, and quinolines, with a wide range of functionalized olefins. We demonstrated the utility of this methodology in the synthesis of natural products, drug candidates, and other biologically active molecules. In addition, we developed conditions to directly arylate these heterocycles with aryl halides. Our initial conditions that used PCy3 as a ligand were successful only for aryl iodides. However, efforts designed to avoid catalyst decomposition led to the development of ligands based on 9-phosphabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane (phoban) that also facilitated the coupling of aryl bromides. We then replicated the unique coordination environment, stability, and catalytic activity of this complex using the much simpler tetrahydrophosphepine ligands and developed conditions that coupled aryl bromides bearing diverse functional groups without the use of a glovebox or purified reagents. With further mechanistic inquiry, we anticipate that researchers will better understand the details of the aforementioned Rh-catalyzed C−H bond functionalization reactions, resulting in the design of more efficient and robust catalysts, expanded substrate scope, and new transformations

    JTE-522, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits growth of pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer in rats

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    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that individuals who regularly consume NSAIDs have lower rates of mortality associated with colorectal cancer. Because COX-2 inhibitors prevent tumor growth through some mechanisms, we assessed the effect of JTE-522, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on pulmonary metastases of colon cancer in a rat model. METHODS: A suspension of 5 × 10(6 )RCN-9 (rat colon cancer cells) was injected into the tail vein of 24 anesthetized male F344/DuCrj rats. Oral JTE-522 (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day) was administered from the day before RCN-9 injection until the end of the study. Twenty-four days later, the lungs were removed from sacrificed rats and weighed. Pulmonary metastatic tumors were microscopically evaluated in the largest cross sections. We also performed immunohistochemical staining for both COX-2 and VEGF. RESULTS: JTE-522 dose-dependently decreased lung weight (p = 0.001) and the size of pulmonary metastatic tumors (p = 0.0002). However, the differences in the number of metastatic tumors among 4 groups were insignificant. Significant adverse effects of JTE-522 were undetectable. Immunohistochemical staining showed high levels of both COX-2 and VEGF in pulmonary metastatic tumors. CONCLUSION: JTE-522 dose-dependently decreased the size, but not the number of pulmonary metastases. COX-2 inhibitors might block metastatic tumor growth, but not actual metastasis. Selective COX-2 inhibitors might be useful as therapeutic agents that inhibit the growth of metastatic tumors, as well as the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer

    Solid-state reference electrodes based on carbon nanotubes and polyacrylate membranes

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    A novel potentiometric solid-state reference electrode containing single-walled carbon nanotubes as the transducer layer between a polyacrylate membrane and the conductor is reported here. Single-walled carbon nanotubes act as an efficient transducer of the constant potentiometric signal originating from the reference membrane containing the Ag/AgCl/Cl− ions system, and they are needed to obtain a stable reference potentiometric signal. Furthermore, we have taken advantage of the light insensitivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes to improve the analytical performance characteristics of previously reported solid-state reference electrodes. Four different polyacrylate polymers have been selected in order to identify the most efficient reservoir for the Ag/AgCl system. Finally, two different arrangements have been assessed: (1) a solid-state reference electrode using photo-polymerised n-butyl acrylate polymer and (2) a thermo-polymerised methyl methacrylate:n-butyl acrylate (1:10) polymer. The sensitivity to various salts, pH and light, as well as time of response and stability, has been tested: the best results were obtained using single-walled carbon nanotubes and photo-polymerised n-butyl acrylate polymer. Water transport plays an important role in the potentiometric performance of acrylate membranes, so a new screening test method has been developed to qualitatively assess the difference in water percolation between the polyacrylic membranes studied. The results presented here open the way for the true miniaturisation of potentiometric systems using the excellent properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes
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