273 research outputs found

    Infrared spectroscopic studies on unoriented single-walled carbon nanotube films under hydrostatic pressure

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    The electronic properties of as-prepared and purified unoriented single-walled carbon nanotube films were studied by transmission measurements over a broad frequency range (far-infrared up to visible) as a function of temperature (15 K - 295 K) and external pressure (up to 8 GPa). Both the as-prepared and the purified SWCNT films exhibit nearly temperature-independent properties. With increasing pressure the low-energy absorbance decreases suggesting an increasing carrier localization due to pressure-induced deformations. The energy of the optical transitions in the SWCNTs decreases with increasing pressure, which can be attributed to pressure-induced hybridization and symmetry-breaking effects. We find an anomaly in the pressure-induced shift of the optical transitions at ∼\sim2 GPa due to a structural phase transition.Comment: 13 pages, 15 figure

    Chirality distribution and transition energies of carbon nanotubes

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    From resonant Raman scattering on isolated nanotubes we obtained the optical transition energies, the radial breathing mode frequency and Raman intensity of both metallic and semiconducting tubes. We unambiguously assigned the chiral index (n_1,n_2) of approximately 50 nanotubes based solely on a third-neighbor tight-binding Kataura plot and find omega_RBM=214.4cm^-1nm/d+18.7cm^-1. In contrast to luminescence experiments we observe all chiralities including zig-zag tubes. The Raman intensities have a systematic chiral-angle dependence confirming recent ab-initio calculations.Comment: 4 pages, to be published in Phys. Rev. Let

    Contacting single bundles of carbon nanotubes with alternating electric fields

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    Single bundles of carbon nanotubes have been selectively deposited from suspensions onto sub-micron electrodes with alternating electric fields. We explore the resulting contacts using several solvents and delineate the differences between Au and Ag as electrode materials. Alignment of the bundles between electrodes occurs at frequencies above 1 kHz. Control over the number of trapped bundles is achieved by choosing an electrode material which interacts strongly with the chemical functional groups of the carbon nanotubes, with superior contacts being formed with Ag electrodes.Comment: 4 pages, RevTe

    Entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement: The role of detection efficiency

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    We assess proposals for entangling two distant atoms by measurement of emitted photons, analyzing how their performance depends on the photon detection efficiency. We consider schemes based on measurement of one or two photons and compare them in terms of the probability to obtain the detection event and of the conditional fidelity with which the desired entangled state is created. Based on an unravelling of the master equation, we quantify the parameter regimes in which one or the other scheme is more efficient, including the possible combination of the one-photon scheme with state purification. In general, protocols based on one-photon detection are more efficient in set-ups characterized by low photon detection efficiency, while at larger values two-photon protocols are preferable. We give numerical examples based on current experiments.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figure

    Beta-decay of nuclei around Se-90. Search for signatures of a N=56 sub-shell closure relevant the r-process

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    Nuclear structure plays a significant role on the rapid neutron capture process (r-process) since shapes evolve with the emergence of shells and sub-shells. There was some indication in neighboring nuclei that we might find examples of a new N=56 sub-shell, which may give rise to a doubly magic Se-90 nucleus. Beta-decay half lives of nuclei around Se-90 have been measured to determine if this nucleus has in fact a doubly-magic character. The fragmentation of Xe-136 beam at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University was used to create a cocktail of nuclei in the A=90 region. We have measured the half lives of twenty-two nuclei near the r-process path in the A=90 region. The half lives of As-88 and Se-90 have been measured for the first time. The values were compared with theoretical predictions in the search for nuclear-deformation signatures of a N=56 sub-shell, and its possible role in the emergence of a potential doubly-magic Se-90. The impact of such hypothesis on the synthesis of heavy nuclei, particularly in the production of Sr, Y and Zr elements was investigated with a weak r-process network. The new half lives agree with results obtained from a standard global QRPA model used in r-process calculations, indicating that Se-90 has a quadrupole shape incompatible with a closed N=56 sub-shell in this region. The impact of the measured Se-90 half-life in comparison with a former theoretical predication associated with a spherical half-life on the weak-r-process is shown to be strong

    Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions

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    We observe quantum interference of photons emitted by two continuously laser-excited single ions, independently trapped in distinct vacuum vessels. High contrast two-photon interference is observed in two experiments with different ion species, calcium and barium. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by Bloch equation calculations. In particular, we show that the coherence of the individual resonance fluorescence light field is determined from the observed interference
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