18,194 research outputs found

    On the premelting features in sodium clusters

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    Melting in Na_n clusters described with an empirical embedded-atom potential has been reexamined in the size range 55<=n<=147 with a special attention at sizes close to 130. Contrary to previous findings, premelting effects are also present at such medium sizes, and they turn out to be even stronger than the melting process itself for Na_133 or Na_135. These results indicate that the empirical potential is_qualitatively_ unadequate to model sodium clusters.Comment: 4 pages, 3 postscript figure

    Theoretical study of the finite temperature spectroscopy in van der Waals clusters. III Solvated Chromophore as an effective diatomics

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    The absorption spectroscopy of calcium-doped argon clusters is described in terms of an effective diatomics molecule Ca-(Ar_n), in the framework of semiclassical vertical transitions. We show how, upon choosing a suitable reaction coordinate, the effective finite-temperature equilibrium properties can be obtained for the ground- and excited-surfaces from the potential of mean force (PMF). An extension of the recent multiple range random-walk method is used to calculate the PMF over continuous intervals of distances. The absorption spectra calculated using this single-coordinate description are found to be in good agreement with the spectra obtained from high-statistics Monte Carlo data, in various situations. For CaAr13_{13}, we compare the performances of two different choices of the reaction coordinate. For CaAr_37, the method is seen to be accurate enough to distinguish between different low-energy structures. Finally, the idea of casting the initial many-body problem into a single degree of freedom problem is tested on the spectroscopy of calcium in bulk solid argon.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figure

    Statistical evaporation of rotating clusters. II. Angular momentum distribution

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    The change in the angular momentum of an atomic cluster following evaporation is investigated using rigorous phase space theory and molecular dynamics simulations, with an aim at the possible rotational cooling and heating effects. Influences of the shape of the interaction potential, anharmonicity of the vibrational density of states (DOS), and the initial distribution of excitation energies are systematically studied on the example of the Lennard-Jones cluster LJ_14. For this system, the predictions of PST are in quantitative agreement with the results of the simulations, provided that the correct forms for the vibrational density of states and the interaction potential are used. The harmonic approximation to the DOS is used to obtain explicit forms for the angular momentum distribution in larger clusters. These are seen to undergo preferential cooling when thermally excited, and preferential heating when subject to a strong vibrational excitation.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figure

    Theoretical study of finite temperature spectroscopy in van der Waals clusters. II Time-dependent absorption spectra

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    Using approximate partition functions and a master equation approach, we investigate the statistical relaxation toward equilibrium in selected CaArn_n clusters. The Gaussian theory of absorption (previous article) is employed to calculate the average photoabsorption intensity associated with the 4s^2-> 4s^14p^1 transition of calcium as a function of time during relaxation. In CaAr_6 and CaAr_10 simple relaxation is observed with a single time scale. CaAr_13 exhibits much slower dynamics and the relaxation occurs over two distinct time scales. CaAr_37 shows much slower relaxation with multiple transients, reminiscent of glassy behavior due to competition between different low-energy structures. We interpret these results in terms of the underlying potential energy surfaces for these clusters.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figure

    Kinetic approach to the cluster liquid-gas transition

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    The liquid-gas transition in free atomic clusters is investigated theoretically based on simple unimolecular rate theories and assuming sequential evaporations. A kinetic Monte Carlo scheme is used to compute the time-dependent properties of clusters undergoing multiple dissociations, and two possible definitions of the boiling point are proposed, relying on the cluster or gas temperature. This numerical approach is supported by molecular dynamics simulations of clusters made of sodium atoms or C60 molecules, as well as simplified rate equation

    Antiferromagnetic spin chain behavior and a transition to 3D magnetic order in Cu(D,L-alanine)2: Roles of H-bonds

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    We study the spin chain behavior, a transition to 3D magnetic order and the magnitudes of the exchange interactions for the metal-amino acid complex Cu(D,L-alanine)2.H2O, a model compound to investigate exchange couplings supported by chemical paths characteristic of biomolecules. Thermal and magnetic data were obtained as a function of temperature (T) and magnetic field (B0). The magnetic contribution to the specific heat, measured between 0.48 and 30 K, displays above 1.8 K a 1D spin-chain behavior that can be fitted with an intrachain antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange coupling constant 2J0 = (-2.12 ±\pm 0.08) cm−1^{-1}, between neighbor coppers at 4.49 {\AA} along chains connected by non-covalent and H-bonds. We also observe a narrow specific heat peak at 0.89 K indicating a phase transition to a 3D magnetically ordered phase. Magnetization curves at fixed T = 2, 4 and 7 K with B0 between 0 and 9 T, and at T between 2 and 300 K with several fixed values of B0 were globally fitted by an intrachain AFM exchange coupling constant 2J0 = (-2.27 ±\pm 0.02) cm−1^{-1} and g = 2.091 ±\pm 0.005. Interchain interactions J1 between coppers in neighbor chains connected through long chemical paths with total length of 9.51 {\AA} are estimated within the range 0.1 < |2J1| < 0.4 cm−1^{-1}, covering the predictions of various approximations. We analyze the magnitudes of 2J0 and 2J1 in terms of the structure of the corresponding chemical paths. The main contribution in supporting the intrachain interaction is assigned to H-bonds while the interchain interactions are supported by paths containing H-bonds and carboxylate bridges, with the role of the H-bonds being predominant. We compare the obtained intrachain coupling with studies of compounds showing similar behavior and discuss the validity of the approximations allowing to calculate the interchain interactions.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figure

    Sampling along reaction coordinates with the Wang-Landau method

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    The multiple range random walk algorithm recently proposed by Wang and Landau [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2050 (2001)] is adapted to the computation of free energy profiles for molecular systems along reaction coordinates. More generally, we show how to extract partial averages in various statistical ensembles without invoking simulations with constraints, biasing potentials or unknown parameters. The method is illustrated on a model 10-dimensional potential energy surface, for which analytical results are obtained. It is then applied to the potential of mean force associated with the dihedral angle of the butane molecule in gas phase and in carbon tetrachloride solvent. Finally, isomerization in a small rocksalt cluster, Na4F4, is investigated in the microcanonical ensemble, and the results are compared to those of parallel tempering Monte Carlo.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Spin-induced angular momentum switching

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    When light is transmitted through optically inhomogeneous and anisotropic media the spatial distribution of light can be modified according to its input polarization state. A complete analysis of this process, based on the paraxial approximation, is presented, and we show how it can be exploited to produce a spin-controlled-change in the orbital angular momentum of light beams propagating in patterned space-variant-optical-axis phase plates. We also unveil a new effect. The development of a strong modulation in the angular momentum change upon variation of the optical path through the phase plates.Comment: The original paper of the published version in Opt. Let
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