6,744 research outputs found

    Metric perturbations from eccentric orbits on a Schwarzschild black hole: I. Odd-parity Regge-Wheeler to Lorenz gauge transformation and two new methods to circumvent the Gibbs phenomenon

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    We calculate the odd-parity, radiative (2\ell \ge 2) parts of the metric perturbation in Lorenz gauge caused by a small compact object in eccentric orbit about a Schwarzschild black hole. The Lorenz gauge solution is found via gauge transformation from a corresponding one in Regge-Wheeler gauge. Like the Regge-Wheeler gauge solution itself, the gauge generator is computed in the frequency domain and transferred to the time domain. The wave equation for the gauge generator has a source with a compact, moving delta-function term and a discontinuous non-compact term. The former term allows the method of extended homogeneous solutions to be applied (which circumvents the Gibbs phenomenon). The latter has required the development of new means to use frequency domain methods and yet be able to transfer to the time domain while avoiding Gibbs problems. Two new methods are developed to achieve this: a partial annihilator method and a method of extended particular solutions. We detail these methods and show their application in calculating the odd-parity gauge generator and Lorenz gauge metric perturbations. A subsequent paper will apply these methods to the harder task of computing the even-parity parts of the gauge generator.Comment: 17 pages, 9 figures, Updated with one modified figure and minor changes to the text. Added DOI and Journal referenc

    Gravitational perturbations and metric reconstruction: Method of extended homogeneous solutions applied to eccentric orbits on a Schwarzschild black hole

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    We calculate the gravitational perturbations produced by a small mass in eccentric orbit about a much more massive Schwarzschild black hole and use the numerically computed perturbations to solve for the metric. The calculations are initially made in the frequency domain and provide Fourier-harmonic modes for the gauge-invariant master functions that satisfy inhomogeneous versions of the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations. These gravitational master equations have specific singular sources containing both delta function and derivative-of-delta function terms. We demonstrate in this paper successful application of the method of extended homogeneous solutions, developed recently by Barack, Ori, and Sago, to handle source terms of this type. The method allows transformation back to the time domain, with exponential convergence of the partial mode sums that represent the field. This rapid convergence holds even in the region of rr traversed by the point mass and includes the time-dependent location of the point mass itself. We present numerical results of mode calculations for certain orbital parameters, including highly accurate energy and angular momentum fluxes at infinity and at the black hole event horizon. We then address the issue of reconstructing the metric perturbation amplitudes from the master functions, the latter being weak solutions of a particular form to the wave equations. The spherical harmonic amplitudes that represent the metric in Regge-Wheeler gauge can themselves be viewed as weak solutions. They are in general a combination of (1) two differentiable solutions that adjoin at the instantaneous location of the point mass (a result that has order of continuity C1C^{-1} typically) and (2) (in some cases) a delta function distribution term with a computable time-dependent amplitude.Comment: 25 pages, 5 figures, Updated with minor change

    Time Dependence of Particle Creation from Accelerating Mirrors

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    Particle production due to a quantized, massless, minimally coupled scalar field in two-dimensional flat spacetime with an accelerating mirror is investigated, with a focus on the time dependence of the process. We analyze first the classes of trajectories previously investigated by Carlitz and Willey and by Walker and Davies. We then analyze four new classes of trajectories, all of which can be expressed analytically and for which several ancillary properties can be derived analytically. The time dependence is investigated through the use of wave packets for the modes of the quantized field that are in the out vacuum state. It is shown for most of the trajectories studied that good time resolution of the particle production process can be obtained.Comment: 21 pages, 5 figure

    Mirror Reflections of a Black Hole

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    An exact correspondence between a black hole and an accelerating mirror is demonstrated. It is shown that for a massless minimally coupled scalar field the same Bogolubov coefficients connecting the "in" and "out" states occur for a (1+1)D flat spacetime with a particular perfectly reflecting accelerating boundary trajectory and a (1+1)D curved spacetime in which a null shell collapses to form a black hole. Generalization of the latter to the (3+1)D case is discussed. The spectral dynamics is computed in both (1+1)-dimensional spacetimes along with the energy flux in the spacetime with a mirror. It is shown that the approach to equilibrium is monotonic, asymmetric in terms of the rate, and there is a specific time which characterizes the system when it is the most out-of-equilibrium.Comment: 25 pages, 7 figure

    Trumpet Initial Data for Boosted Black Holes

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    We describe a procedure for constructing initial data for boosted black holes in the moving-punctures approach to numerical relativity that endows the initial time slice from the outset with trumpet geometry within the black hole interiors. We then demonstrate the procedure in numerical simulations using an evolution code from the Einstein Toolkit that employs 1+log slicing. The Lorentz boost of a single black hole can be precisely specified and multiple, widely separated black holes can be treated approximately by superposition of single hole data. There is room within the scheme for later improvement to re-solve (iterate) the constraint equations in the multiple black hole case. The approach is shown to yield an initial trumpet slice for one black hole that is close to, and rapidly settles to, a stationary trumpet geometry. Initial data in this new approach is shown to contain initial transient (or "junk") radiation that is suppressed by as much as two orders of magnitude relative to that in comparable Bowen-York initial data.Comment: 18 pages, 18 figure

    Black Hole - Moving Mirror II: Particle Creation

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    There is an exact correspondence between the simplest solution to Einstein's equations describing the formation of a black hole and a particular moving mirror trajectory. In both cases the Bogolubov coefficients in 1+1 dimensions are identical and can be computed analytically. Particle creation is investigated by using wave packets. The entire particle creation history is computed, incorporating the early-time non-thermal emission due to the formation of the black hole (or the early-time acceleration of the moving mirror) and the evolution to a Planckian spectrum.Comment: Contribution to MG14 Proceedings, 5 pages, 4 figure

    Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

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    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e0.8e\sim0.8 and initial separations as large as p50p\sim 50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within 0.1\sim0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.Comment: Updated to reflect published versio

    Evolution of small-mass-ratio binaries with a spinning secondary

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    We calculate the evolution and gravitational-wave emission of a spinning compact object inspiraling into a substantially more massive (non-rotating) black hole. We extend our previous model for a non-spinning binary [Phys. Rev. D 93, 064024] to include the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon spin-curvature force. For spin-aligned binaries we calculate the dephasing of the inspiral and associated waveforms relative to models that do not include spin-curvature effects. We find this dephasing can be either positive or negative depending on the initial separation of the binary. For binaries in which the spin and orbital angular momentum are not parallel, the orbital plane precesses and we use a more general osculating element prescription to compute inspirals.Comment: 17 pages, 6 figure

    Black Hole - Moving Mirror I: An Exact Correspondence

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    An exact correspondence is shown between a new moving mirror trajectory in (1+1)D and a spacetime in (1+1)D in which a black hole forms from the collapse of a null shell. It is shown that the Bogolubov coefficients between the "in" and "out" states are identical and the exact Bogolubov coefficients are displayed. Generalization to the (3+1)D black hole case is discussed.Comment: Contribution to MG14 Proceedings, 5 pages, 1 figur
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