27 research outputs found

    Early detection of subclinical ventricular deterioration in aortic stenosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiography

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Background: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction are known to have worse outcome. We aimed to investigate whether LGE on CMR would be useful in early detection of subclinical LV structural and functional derangements in AS patients. Methods: 118 patients with moderate to severe AS were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography and CMR images were taken and the patients were divided into groups according to the presence/absence of LGE and of LV systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction (EF) <50%). The stiffness of LV was calculated based on Doppler and CMR measurements. Results: Patients were grouped into either group 1, no LGE and normal LVEF, group 2, LGE but normal LVEF and group 3, LGE with depressed LVEF. There was a significant trend towards increasing LV volumes, worsening of LV diastolic function (E/e, diastolic elastance), systolic function (end-systolic elastance) and LV hypertrophy between the three groups, which coincided with worsening functional capacity (all p-value < 0.001 for trend). Also, significant differences in the above parameters were noted between group 1 and 2 (E/e, 14.6 ± 4.3 (mean ± standard deviation) in group 1 vs. 18.2 ± 9.4 in group 2; end-systolic elastance, 3.24 ± 2.31 in group 1 vs. 2.38 ± 1.16 in group 2, all p-value < 0.05). The amount of myocardial fibrosis on CMR correlated with parameters of diastolic (diastolic elastance, Spearmans ρ = 0.256, p-value = 0.005) and systolic function (end-systolic elastance, Spearmans ρ = −0.359, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the usefulness of CMR for early detection of subclinical LV structural and functional deterioration in AS patients.Peer Reviewe

    Correction: Demographic and Clinico-Epidemiological Features of Dengue Fever in Faisalabad, Pakistan.

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    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0267652.]

    Characterization of a Thermoacidophilic l-Arabinose Isomerase from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius: Role of Lys-269 in pH Optimum

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    The araA gene encoding l-arabinose isomerase (AI) from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the sequence revealed that the open reading frame of the araA gene consists of 1,491 bp that encodes a protein of 497 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56,043 Da. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of A. acidocaldarius AI (AAAI) with other AIs demonstrated that AAAI has 97% and 66% identities (99% and 83% similarities) to Geobacillus stearothermophilus AI (GSAI) and Bacillus halodurans AI (BHAI), respectively. The recombinant AAAI was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The purified enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 6.0 to 6.5 and 65°C under the assay conditions used, and it required divalent cations such as Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Mg(2+) for its activity. The isoelectric point (pI) of the enzyme was about 5.0 (calculated pI of 5.5). The apparent K(m) values of the recombinant AAAI for l-arabinose and d-galactose were 48.0 mM (V(max), 35.5 U/mg) and 129 mM (V(max), 7.5 U/mg), respectively, at pH 6 and 65°C. Interestingly, although the biochemical properties of AAAI are quite similar to those of GSAI and BHAI, the three AIs from A. acidocaldarius (pH 6), G. stearothermophilus (pH 7), and B. halodurans (pH 8) exhibited different pH activity profiles. Based on alignment of the amino acid sequences of these homologous AIs, we propose that the Lys-269 residue of AAAI may be responsible for the ability of the enzyme to act at low pH. To verify the role of Lys-269, we prepared the mutants AAAI-K269E and BHAI-E268K by site-directed mutagenesis and compared their kinetic parameters with those of wild-type AIs at various pHs. The pH optima of both AAAI-K269E and BHAI-E268K were rendered by 1.0 units (pH 6 to 7 and 8 to 7, respectively) compared to the wild-type enzymes. In addition, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of each mutant at different pHs was significantly affected by an increase or decrease in V(max). From these results, we propose that the position corresponding to the Lys-269 residue of AAAI could play an important role in the determination of the pH optima of homologous AIs

    Proposal of a Provisional Classification of Sebaceous Carcinoma Based on Hormone Receptor Expression and HER2 Status

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    Despite recent progress in comprehensive genetic analysis, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of sebaceous carcinoma. On the basis of the ontogenic proximity of sebaceous and mammary glands, we designed an intrinsic classification for sebaceous carcinoma adapted from that of breast cancer and evaluated its clinical significance. We investigated 42 cases of sebaceous carcinoma, including 32 ocular and 10 extraocular cases. Immunohistochemical analyses for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), HER2, Ki67, and CK5/6 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for the HER2 gene were performed. The immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, and AR showed positivity in 18 (42.9%), 11 (26.2%), and 34 (81.0%) cases, respectively. Expression of the HER2 protein was found in 10 (33.8%) cases, whereas extra copies were found in 3 (7.1%). According to our system, there were 16 (38.1%) cases of the luminal 1 subtype, 4 (9.5%) of the luminal 2 subtype, and 7 (16.7%) of the HER2 subtype, respectively. Fifteen cases (35.7%) belonged to the triple-negative group. In univariable analysis, loss of AR was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.020), whereas the expression of HER2 was associated with a better outcome with borderline significance (P = 0.060). The luminal 2 subtype showed the best survival, and the all-negative subtype showed the worst (P = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, negativity of PR or AR, low CK5/6, and female sex were independent poor prognostic factors (all P &lt; 0.05). This is the first study to categorize sebaceous carcinoma on the basis of the possible link between its molecular pathogenesis and future therapeutic applications.N

    Cellular Prion Protein Is Closely Associated with Early Recurrence and Poor Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is known to play a role in cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of PrPC expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. This study investigated whether overexpression of PrPC affects recurrence after surgical resection and survival in HCC. A total of 110 HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were included. They were followed up for a median of 42 months (range 1–213 months) after hepatectomy. The relationships between PrPC expression and the HCC histologic features, recurrence of HCC following surgical resection, and survival of the patients were examined. Seventy-one cases (64.5%) of HCC demonstrated higher expression of PrPC. The expression of PrPC was only correlated with diabetes mellitus. There was no association between PrPC expression and age, sex, hypertension, hepatitis B virus positivity, alcohol consumption, Child–Pugh class, major portal vein invasion, serum alpha-fetoprotein, and HCC size or number. The 1-year recurrence rates in patients with higher PrPC expression were higher than those with lower PrPC expression. The cumulative survival rates of patients with higher PrPC expression were significantly shorter than those of patients with lower PrPC expression. In conclusion, PrPC expression is closely associated with early recurrence and poor survival of HCC patients following surgical resection

    Characteristics of CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma among Koreans: High incidence of BCL2 and MYC double-expressors.

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    Aberrant expression of CD5 has been reported in 5-10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). CD5+ DLBCL had been recognized as an aggressive immunophenotypic subgroup of DLBCL in the 2008 WHO classification of haematolymphoid neoplasm; however, it was eliminated from the list of subgroups of DLBCLs in the revised 2016 classification. Nevertheless, there is much controversy regarding the clinical significance of CD5 expression, and many researchers still assert that this subgroup exhibits an extremely unfavorable prognosis with frequent treatment failure. We retrospectively investigated 405 DLBCLs recruited from three university hospitals in Korea from 1997 to 2013. The clinical profile, immunophenotype, and chromosomal structural alterations of the BCL2 and MYC genes were compared according to CD5 expression. A total of 29 cases of de novo CD5+ DLBCL were identified out of 405 in our series (7.4%). Clinicopathologic correlation was performed in all 29 CD5+ DLBCLs and 166 CD5- DLBCLs which were eligible for full clinical review and further pathologic examination. Compared with CD5- counterparts, CD5+ DLBCLs showed female preponderance, frequent bone marrow involvement, higher lactate dehydrogenase level, advanced Ann Arbor stages and poorer prognosis (all p<0.05). Pathologically, the expression of CD5 positively correlated with that of BCL2, MYC and Ki-67 (all p<0.05). Coexpression of BCL2 and MYC, which is referred to as a double-expressor, was relatively more common in CD5+ DLBCL, whereas translocation or amplification of these genes was very rare. in conclusion, the expression of CD5 is an independent poor prognostic factor of DLBCLs, and this subgroup displays unique clinicopathologic features. Although the exact mechanism remains uncertain, consistent activation of BCL2 and MYC by alternative pathways other than chromosomal translocation may contribute to the pathogenesis

    Neonatal and maternal adverse outcomes and exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during early pregnancy in South Korea: A nationwide cohort study.

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    BackgroundExisting data on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during late pregnancy is well established, providing assurance. However, the use of NSAIDs during early pregnancy remains inconclusive owing to conflicting findings on adverse neonatal outcomes as well as the limited data on adverse maternal outcomes. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether early prenatal exposure to NSAIDs was associated with neonatal and maternal adverse outcomes.Methods and findingsWe conducted a nationwide, population-based cohort study using Korea's National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database with a mother-offspring cohort constructed and validated by the NHIS to include all live births in women aged 18 to 44 years between 2010 and 2018. We defined exposure to NSAIDs as at least two records of NSAID prescriptions during early pregnancy (first 90 days of pregnancy for congenital malformations and first 19 weeks for nonmalformation outcomes) and compared against three distinct referent groups of (1) unexposed, no NSAID prescription during the 3 months before pregnancy start to end of early pregnancy; (2) acetaminophen-exposed, at least two acetaminophen prescriptions during early pregnancy (i.e., active comparator); and (3) past users, at least two NSAID prescriptions before the start of pregnancy but no relevant prescriptions during pregnancy. Outcomes of interest were adverse birth outcomes of major congenital malformations and low birth weight and adverse maternal outcomes of antepartum hemorrhage and oligohydramnios. We estimated relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs using generalized linear models within a propensity score (PS) fine stratification weighted cohort that accounted for various potential confounders of maternal sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, co-medication use, and general markers of burden of illness. Of 1.8 million pregnancies in the PS weighted analyses, exposure to NSAIDs during early pregnancy was associated with slightly increased risks for neonatal outcomes of major congenital malformations (PS-adjusted RR, 1.14 [CI, 1.10 to 1.18]) and low birth weight (1.29 [1.25 to 1.33]), and for maternal outcome of oligohydramnios (1.09 [1.01 to 1.19]) but not antepartum hemorrhage (1.05 [0.99 to 1.12]). The risks of overall congenital malformations, low birth weight, and oligohydramnios remained significantly elevated despite comparing NSAIDs against acetaminophen or past users. Risks of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes were higher with cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors or use of NSAIDs for more than 10 days, whereas generally similar effects were observed across the three most frequently used individual NSAIDs. Point estimates were largely consistent across all sensitivity analyses, including the sibling-matched analysis. Main limitations of this study are residual confounding by indication and from unmeasured factors.ConclusionsThis large-scale, nationwide cohort study found that exposure to NSAIDs during early pregnancy was associated with slightly higher risks of neonatal and maternal adverse outcomes. Clinicians should therefore carefully weigh the benefits of prescribing NSAIDs in early pregnancy against its modest, but possible, risk of neonatal and maternal outcomes, where if possible, consider prescribing nonselective NSAIDs for <10 days, along with continued careful monitoring for any safety signals