27 research outputs found

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### Diameter, Girth And Other Properties Of Highly Symmetric Graphs

We consider a number of problems in graph theory, with the unifying theme being the properties of graphs which have a high degree of symmetry.
In the degree-diameter problem, we consider the question of finding asymptotically large graphs of given degree and diameter. We improve a number of the current best published results in the case of Cayley graphs of cyclic, dihedral and general groups.
In the degree-diameter problem for mixed graphs, we give a new corrected formula for the Moore bound and show non-existence of mixed Cayley graphs of diameter 2 attaining the Moore bound for a range of open cases.
In the degree-girth problem, we investigate the graphs of Lazebnik, Ustimenko and Woldar which are the best asymptotic family identified to date. We give new information on the automorphism groups of these graphs, and show that they are more highly symmetrical than has been known to date.
We study a related problem in group theory concerning product-free sets in groups, and in particular those groups whose maximal product-free subsets are complete. We take a large step towards a classification of such groups, and find an application to the degree-diameter problem which allows us to improve an asymptotic bound for diameter 2 Cayley graphs of elementary abelian groups.
Finally, we study the problem of graphs embedded on surfaces where the induced map is regular and has an automorphism group in a particular family. We give a complete enumeration of all such maps and study their properties

### Large circulant graphs of fixed diameter and arbitrary degree

We consider the degree-diameter problem for undirected and directed circulant graphs. To date, attempts to generate families of large circulant graphs of arbitrary degree for a given diameter have concentrated mainly on the diameter 2 case. We present a direct product construction yielding improved bounds for small diameters and introduce a new general technique for “stitching” together circulant graphs which enables us to improve the current best known asymptotic orders for every diameter. As an application, we use our constructions in the directed case to obtain upper bounds on the minimum size of a subset A of a cyclic group of order n such that the k-fold sumset kA is equal to the whole group. We also present a revised table of largest known circulant graphs of small degree and diameter

### Groups whose locally maximal product-free sets are complete

Let G be a finite group and S a subset of G. Then S is product-free if S ∩ SS = ∅, and complete if G∗ ⊆ S ∪ SS. A product-free set is locally maximal if it is not contained in a strictly larger product-free set. If S is product-free and complete then S is locally maximal, but the converse does not necessarily hold. Street and Whitehead [J. Combin. Theory Ser. A 17 (1974), 219–226] defined a group G as filled if every locally maximal product-free set S in G is complete (the term comes from their use of the phrase ‘S fills G’ to mean S is complete). They classified all abelian filled groups, and conjectured that the finite dihedral group of order 2n is not filled when n = 6k +1 (k ≥ 1). The conjecture was disproved by two of the current authors [C.S. Anabanti and S.B. Hart, Australas. J. Combin. 63 (3) (2015), 385–398], where we also classified the filled groups of odd order.
In this paper we classify filled dihedral groups, filled nilpotent groups and filled groups of order 2n p where p is an odd prime. We use these results to determine all filled groups of order up to 2000

### On Total Regularity of Mixed Graphs with Order Close to the Moore Bound

The undirected degree/diameter and degree/girth problems and their directed analogues have been studied for many decades in the search for efficient network topologies. Recently such questions have received much attention in the setting of mixed graphs, i.e. networks that admit both undirected edges and directed arcs. The degree/diameter problem for mixed graphs asks for the largest possible order of a network with diameter $k$, maximum undirected degree $\leq r$ and maximum directed out-degree $\leq z$. Similarly one can search for the smallest possible $k$-geodetic mixed graphs with minimum undirected degree $\geq r$ and minimum directed out-degree $\geq z$. A simple counting argument reveals the existence of a natural bound, the Moore bound, on the order of such graphs; a graph that meets this limit is a mixed Moore graph. Mixed Moore graphs can exist only for $k = 2$ and even in this case it is known that they are extremely rare. It is therefore of interest to search for graphs with order one away from the Moore bound. Such graphs must be out-regular; a much more difficult question is whether they must be totally regular. For $k = 2$, we answer this question in the affirmative, thereby resolving an open problem stated in a recent paper of Lopez and Miret. We also present partial results for larger $k$. We finally put these results to practical use by proving the uniqueness of a 2-geodetic mixed graph with order exceeding the Moore bound by one

### Large Cayley graphs of small diameter

The degree-diameter problem seeks to find the largest possible number of vertices in a graph having given diameter and given maximum degree. Very often the problem is studied for restricted families of graph such as vertex-transitive or Cayley graphs, with the goal being to find a family of graphs with good asymptotic properties. In this paper we restrict attention to Cayley graphs, and study the asymptotics by fixing a small diameter and constructing families of graphs of large order for all values of the maximum degree. Much of the literature in this direction is focused on the diameter two case. In this paper we consider larger diameters, and use a variety of techniques to derive new best asymptotic constructions for diameters 3, 4 and 5 as well as an improvement to the general bound for all odd diameters. Our diameter 3 construction is, as far as we know, the first to employ matrix groups over finite fields in the degree-diameter problem

### On the upper embedding of symmetric configurations with block size 3

We consider the problem of embedding a symmetric configuration with block size 3 in an orientable surface in such a way that the blocks of the configuration form triangular faces and there is only one extra large face. We develop a sufficient condition for such an embedding to exist given any orientation of the configuration, and show that this condition is satisfied for all configurations on up to 19 points. We also show that there exists a configuration on 21 points which is not embeddable in any orientation. As a by-product, we give a revised table of numbers of configurations, correcting the published figure for 19 points. We give a number of open questions about embeddability of configurations on larger numbers of points

### Self-dual, self-Petrie-dual and Möbius regular maps on linear fractional groups

Regular maps on linear fractional groups PSL(2, q) and PGL(2, q) have been studied for many years and the theory is well-developed, including generating sets for the associated groups. This paper studies the properties of self-duality, self-Petrie-duality and Möbius regularity in this context, providing necessary and sufficient conditions for each case. We also address the special case for regular maps of type (5, 5). The final section includes an enumeration of the PSL(2, q) maps for q ≤ 81 and a list of all the PSL(2, q) maps which have any of these special properties for q ≤ 49

### Diameter 2 Cayley graphs of dihedral groups

We consider the degree-diameter problem for Cayley graphs of dihedral groups. We find upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of vertices of such a graph with diameter 2 and degree d. We completely determine the asymptotic behaviour of this class of graphs by showing that both limits are asymptotically d2/2