17 research outputs found

    'How to know what you need to do': a cross-country comparison of maternal health guidelines in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

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    Initiatives to raise the quality of care provided to mothers need to be given priority in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The promotion of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is a common strategy, but their implementation is often challenging, limiting their potential impact. Through a cross-country perspective, this study explored CPGs for maternal health in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. The objectives were to compare factors related to CPG use including their content compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, their format, and their development processes. Perceptions of their availability and use in practice were also explored. The overall purpose was to further the understanding of how to increase CPGs' potential to improve quality of care for mothers in SSA. The study was a multiple case study design consisting of cross-country comparisons using document review and key informant interviews. A conceptual framework to aid analysis and discussion of results was developed, including selected domains related to guidelines' implementability and use by health workers in practice in terms of usability, applicability, and adaptability. The study revealed few significant differences in content between the national guidelines for maternal health and WHO recommendations. There were, however, marked variations in the format of CPGs between the three countries. Apart from the Ghanaian and one of the Tanzanian CPGs, the levels of both usability and applicability were assessed as low or medium. In all three countries, the use of CPGs by health workers in practice was perceived to be limited. Our cross-country study suggests that it is not poor quality of content or lack of evidence base that constitute the major barrier for CPGs to positively impact on quality improvement in maternal care in SSA. It rather emphasises the need to prioritise the format of guidelines to increase their usability and applicability and to consider these attributes together with implementation strategies as integral to their development processes

    Paramedic Norwegian Acute Stroke Prehospital Project (ParaNASPP) study protocol: a stepped wedge randomised trial of stroke screening using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in the ambulance

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    Background Less than 50% of stroke patients in Norway reach hospital within 4 h of symptom onset. Early prehospital identification of stroke and triage to the right level of care may result in more patients receiving acute treatment. Quality of communication between paramedics and the stroke centre directly affects prehospital on-scene time, emphasising this as a key factor to reduce prehospital delay. Prehospital stroke scales are developed for quick and easy identification of stroke, but have poor sensitivity and specificity compared to an in-hospital assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The aim of the Paramedic Norwegian Acute Stroke Prehospital Project (ParaNASPP) is to assess whether a structured learning program, prehospital NIHSS and a mobile application facilitating communication with the stroke physician may improve triage of acute stroke patients. Methods A stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled intervention design will be used in this trial in Oslo, Norway. Paramedics at five ambulance stations will enrol adult patients with suspected stroke within 24 h of symptom onset. All paramedics will begin in a control phase with standard procedures. Through an e-learning program and practical training, a random and sequential switch to the intervention phase takes place. A mobile application for NIHSS scoring, including vital patient information for treatment decisions, transferring data from paramedics to the on-call stroke physician at the Stroke Unit at Oslo University Hospital, will be provided for the intervention. The primary outcome measure is positive predictive value (PPV) for prehospital identification of patients with acute stroke defined as the proportion of patients accepted for stroke evaluation and discharged with a final stroke diagnosis. One thousand three hundred patients provide a 50% surplus to the 808 patients needed for 80% power to detect a 10% increase in PPV. Discussion Structured and digital communication using a common scale like NIHSS may result in increased probability for better identification of stroke patients and less stroke mimics delivered to a stroke team for acute diagnostics and treatment in our population. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04137874 . Registered on October 24, 2019

    Constitutionalism Unbound: A Practice Approach to Normativity

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    Pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate for postpartum haemorrhage: randomized controlled trial †

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    The global EPTO database:worldwide occurrences of aquatic insects

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    Abstract Motivation: Aquatic insects comprise 64% of freshwater animal diversity and are widely used as bioindicators to assess water quality impairment and freshwater ecosystem health, as well as to test ecological hypotheses. Despite their importance, a comprehensive, global database of aquatic insect occurrences for mapping freshwater biodiversity in macroecological studies and applied freshwater research is missing. We aim to fill this gap and present the Global EPTO Database, which includes worldwide geo-referenced aquatic insect occurrence records for four major taxa groups: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata (EPTO). Main type of variables contained: A total of 8,368,467 occurrence records globally, of which 8,319,689 (99%) are publicly available. The records are attributed to the corresponding drainage basin and sub-catchment based on the Hydrography90m dataset and are accompanied by the elevation value, the freshwater ecoregion and the protection status of their location. Spatial location and grain: The database covers the global extent, with 86% of the observation records having coordinates with at least four decimal digits (11.1 m precision at the equator) in the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) coordinate reference system. Time period and grain: Sampling years span from 1951 to 2021. Ninety-nine percent of the records have information on the year of the observation, 95% on the year and month, while 94% have a complete date. In the case of seven sub-datasets, exact dates can be retrieved upon communication with the data contributors. Major taxa and level of measurement: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata, standardized at the genus taxonomic level. We provide species names for 7,727,980 (93%) records without further taxonomic verification. Software format: The entire tab-separated value (.csv) database can be downloaded and visualized at https://glowabio.org/project/epto_database/. Fifty individual datasets are also available at https://fred.igb-berlin.de, while six datasets have restricted access. For the latter, we share metadata and the contact details of the authors
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